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County index to vol. iv. 

Name of the Abbey, Caftle, Monastery 
Priory, or Ruin, &c. 


The Map 
H'Billockby Church - 

Caftle Acre Caftle, - plate i . 

Ditto, North Gate, - plate 2. 

Caftle Acre, or Eftacre Monaftery, plate 1 . 

Ditto, - - plate 2. 

Caftre, or Caftor Hall or Caftle, plate 1. 
4 Ditto, - - plate 2. 

. ,-Foftolf or Caftor Caftle, the Plan - 

Norwich Caftle 

Our Lady's Mount 

Gate of St. Mary's Abby 

Mary's (St.) Priory, Thetford 

Priory of Old Houfe, Thetford 


The Map 

Boughton, Or Buckton Church 

Sepulchre's (St.) Church 





S. W. 



C U 

O u 

J2 o 







J J 

S o 

43 . 




N. W. 


The Map 

Alnemouth Church 
fAlnwick Abby Gate-houfe 

Ditto Caftle, - - plate I. 

Ditto, - - plate 2. 

Ditto, - - plate 3. 

Bamborough Caftle, - plate 1. 

Ditto, - - plate 2 

Blackfriars, Newcaftle 

Blenkenfop Caftle 

•Brinkburn Priory 

Bothall Caftle, - - plate 1 

Ditto, - * ' plate 2. 

Cuthbert's (St.) Oratory ''on Cocquet 

Cockle Park Tower 

Dunftanbrough Caftle - - S. W. 

Hermitage, near Warkworth 

= Plan of 

•Holy Ifland Caftle 







r 775 

View by whom 

N.B. Thofe with- 
out a name were 
drawn by the au- 

Mr. Hearne. 
Mr. Woollet. 

r 775 






to face page 



r 773 


to face page - 


J 774 



Job Bullman,efq. 





J 5 

J 9 

2 3 












County index to vol. iv. 

Name of the Abbey, Caflle, Monaflery, 
Priory, or Ruin, &c. 

plate i 

plate 2 
plate 3 

plate 2. 
plate 3. 

Hulne Abby, 

Plan of ditto 
Lindisfame, or Holy Ifland Monaflery, 

plate 1. 
Ditto, - - 


Mitford Caflle 

Monks-Stone near Tynemouth 
Morpeth Caflle Gate-houfe 
Newcaflle, Caflle at Newcaflle 
Norham Caftle 

Our Lady's Chapel, near Bothal, 
Prudhow Caftle 
Thirlwall Caflle 
Tynemouth Priory and Caflle, 

Gate of ditto 

Twizell Caflle and Bridge 
Warkworth Caflle, 



plate v 
plate 2 

Plan of 

plate 1. 
plate 2. 


The Map 

Archbifhop of York's Palace 
King's Houfe at Clypeflon 
Newark Caflle 


The Map 

Bacon's (Friar) Study 
Banbury Church 
Beaumont Palace 
Godilow Nunnery 
Minder Lovell Priory 
Oxford Caflle 
Plan of ditto 

Stanton Harcourt, Old Kitchen 

S. E. 

N. E. 


■2 => 

1 204 

g ° 


s. w. 


N. E. 

1 121 





r 774 

r 773 




View by whom 

N.B. Thofe with- 
out a name were 
drawn by the au- 

Davidfon, cfq. 
Davidfon, efq. 

Davidfon, efq. 


S. E. 

N. E. 


[ 4S 





r 774 
r 757 




Lord Nuenham 



J 34 




J 57 




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AS a maritime county on the eafifcoaft of the ifland, which before the arrival of the 
Romans, belonged to the principality of the Iceni ; but after their eftablifhment 
here was belonging to their province of Flavia Caefarienfis, which reached from 
the Thames to the Humber. During the Saxon Heptarchy it was included in. 
the kingdom of the Eaft Angles, the 6th they eftablifhed, which began in 575, 
and ended in 792, having had 14 kings It is now included in the circuit and 
diocefe of its own name, and province of Canterbury. It is bounded on the 
north by the German Ocean ; on the fouth by Suffolk ; weft by the counties of 
Cambridge and Lincoln ; and on the Eaft by the German Ocean ; being of an 
elliptical form, furrounded by the fea and four rivers. It contains 1,143,000 
fquare acres, or 1426 miles; being 60 miles long, 35 broad; and 140 in circum- 
ference; it has above 283,000 inhabitants, 47,180 houfes, contains 660 parifhes, 
164 vicarages, 1499 villages ; one city, Norwich, and 32 market-towns, viz. Thet- 
ford, Lynn, Yarmouth, Walfingham, Burnham, Aylefham, North Walfham, South 
Walfham, Caftle-Rifing, Harling-Eaft, Hickling, Buckenham, Harlefton, Attle- 



borough, Fakcnham, Loddon, Cafton, Cromer, Dereham, Difs, Downham, 
Foullham, Hingham, Holt, Mcthwold, Repeham, Seching, Snctfham, Swaffham, 
Watton, Windham and Worded. It is divided into 31 hundreds, fends 12 Members 
to Parliament, pays 22 parts of the Land-tax, fends 960 men to the national 
Militia. Its principal rivers are the Oufe, Yare, Waveney, Windfer, Thyrn, 
Neve, Lynn, WhTey, Bradon, Stoke, Duze, Ingol, and feveral leffer dreams. Its 
capes are Winterton and Eafton Nefs ; its fands are thofe of Yarmouth, &c. It 
has five light- houfes; and Bofton and Lynn Deeps, Well and Clay Harbours, Yar- 
mouth and Lynn Ports, Haven's Mouth, Hitcham Haven, Weyborn Hope, Yar- 
mouth Roads, Cromer's Bay. Its moft noted places are feveral parks, many imall 
meers, and feveral fait marfhes near the fea. Its chief produft are paftures, faffron,. 
corn, malt, honey, all forts of filh, fowl, (wild and domeftick) and game, wood,, 
cattle, fh'eep and rabbits. 

The remains of Roman, Saxon, or 1 Danifh encampments are but few in this 
county, thofe that exifts are at Old Buckenham, at Tafborough, at Caifter, near 
Yarmouth, the Burdykes near Creake, and that near Burnham, which confifts of 
eight-acres. As to the Roman Roads, that called Erming Street, which enters this 
county from Suffolk, hath here its termination. It proceeds from Icklingham in. 
Suffolk to Buckenham, the Sitomagum of the Romans, from thence to a ford near 
Thctford, and by a great Danifh Work, named the Caftle, to Larlingford, thence 
in a ftraight line within a mile of Buckenham, where it is loft, thence to Tafbo- 
rough, and near South Bucknam to Yarmouth where it terminates, the Venta. 
Icenorum of many; but I take Brancafter to be the Venta Icenorum, and the 
road to have run from New Buckenham to Old Buckenham, Attleborough, Hing- 
ham, Market Deerham, Fakenham, Creak, Burnham) and thence to Brancafter. 


jBarfham Monaftery near Walfingham 

Billockby Church 

Bicklington Houfe 

Bingham Priory near Walfingham. 

Bromholm Priory near Cromer 

Buckenham Caftle 

Burgh Caftle near Yarmouth 

Caftle Acre, Caftle and Priory 

Caftle Hall, or Caftle near Norwich 

Caftle Rifing Caftle 

Coxford Abbey near Rainham 

Creak Priory 

Kitt's Caftle near Norwich.. 

St.. Margaret and St. Nicholas's Churches - 

in Lynn 
Melton Conftable 
Norwich Cathedral and Caftle 
Our Ladies Mount 

St. Mary's Church and Priory and Pa- 
lace at Thetford 
Priory of t the Old Houfe Thetford 
Gate of St. Mary's Thetford 
Walfingham Priory, Abbey and Caftle 
Wymondham Abbey 
Yarmouth Church 




O F 



IS church Hands 1 near the eaftern extremity of the county 
of Norfolk, on the road leading from Yarmouth to Norwich. 
According to Blomfield it is mentioned in the Domefday Survey, 
when it was endowed with feven acres of land, then valued at yd. 
per annum. In the 10th of Henry III. Ralph de Bray paned the 
advowfon of this church by fine to Nicholas de Holedis. Regi- 
nald de Eccles, who was poffeffed of confiderable property here, 
by his will, dated 1380 and proved 1381, directed that his body 
fliould be buried on the north fide of the chancel of this church. 

John de Eccles his fon, by his lafr. will and teflament, dated 
1383 and proved 1384, bequeathed the reverfion of this manor to 
be fold, and all the produce exceeding iool. to be expended in the 
repairs of this church and chancel, mending the caufeways of 
Weybridge and Baftwick, and putting out poor girls as appren- 
tices. It feems likely from the ftile of this building, that a 
thorough repair, almoft equal to a re-edification, took place at this 
time, as fcarce any part of it appears of the age afcribed to the 
original building. 

In the 7th of Hen. VII. the advowfon belonged to Tho. Snyt- 
terton and Robert Pylalie, who conveyed it to Thomas Godfalve, 
he in the 3 2d of the fame reign granted it to Henry Hobart. 

Anno 1552 Robert Mahew was prefented to this church, and 
Thomas Mahew in 1631. In 1740 Sir George England. 

Vol. IV. A The 


Tiif. church is dedicated to All Saints, is a rectory, the ancient 
valor is fix marks and Feter-pence $d. ob. The prefent valor is 
2l. 1 8s. 9d. and is difcharged. Here, fays Blomfield, were the 
lights of St. Mary and St. Nicholas; probably he means tapers 
kept burning to the honour of thofe holy perfonages. In the 
chancel window were the arms of Harvey impaling Dengayn 
and Jenny. 

This edifice exhibits a more picturefque appearance than can 
be conveyed by an engraving, the mixture of free-ftone, flint, 
and brick in its walls ; the ancient thatch with which the chancel 
is moflly covered, enriched with grafs, mofs, and flamed of dif- 
ferent hues, contrafled with new ftraw lately laid on, together 
afford a variety of tints, which cannot be expreffed by black 
and white. 

The nave and tower of this church are in ruins, the chancel 
is patched up and ftill ufed for divine fervice. This view was 
drawn anno 1776. 


1 HIS caflle ftands in the weftern part of the county, in the 
hundred of Frebrig. Clofe to its fouthern wall runs a fmall river. 

It was anciently the feat of the Earls Warren, and it is faid to 
derive its name from being fituatcd in a field. It mufl be owned' 
the etymology is not very finking, unlefs it alludes to the area en- 
elcfed within the walls of its citadel or keep, which is reported to 
meafure jufl an acre. , 

The ruins of this caftle are very extenfive, and from their com- 
manding fituation, it mufl have been very flrong. The keep or 
citadel was circular, defended on three fides by a deep ditch j and 
on the fouth fide by a flrong wall j at the foot of which runs 
the river. 

Before the fouth fide of the keep was a confiderable area, per- 
haps ufed as a parade to draw up and exercife the garrifon j on the 
call fide whereof are the remains of a gate, or rather wall, running 



crofs the ditch, having a fort of covert way, ferving to flank or 
command it. 

On the weft fide of the citadel are the remains of a gate leading 
into the outer court or ward of the caftle, where are the ruins of 
many buildings, probably once the dwelling of the artificers and 
fervants belonging to-this fortrefs, as alfo the barracks of that part 
of the garrifon not immediately on duty. Thefe form a kind of 
ftreet, running north and fouth, and having a gate at each end - ? 
that on the north fide in tolerable repair. The caftle flands about 
an hundred yards eaft of the abbey wall. 

The time when this caftle was built is not known : nor has 
either hiftory or tradition preferved the name of its builder. It is 
however more than probable that it was built foon after the con- 
queft by William, earl of Warren, to whom the conqueror granted 
one hundred and thirty-nine lordfhips in this county. It is men- 
tioned in a charter by his fon to the monks of the monaftery 
founded here anno 1190. 

John, the laft Earl Warren, gave this manor with all his lands 
to King Edward II. and afterwards King Edward III, in the fecond 
year of his reign, anno 1328, granted the above donation to 
Richard Fitz Alan, earl of Arundel r fon of Alice, fitter and heir 
of John, earl of Warren ; in which family they continued till 
Henry, earl of Arundel, ift of Elizabeth, fold this manor to Sir 
Thomas Grefham, who bought the priory of the duke of Norfolk, 
to whom King Henry VIII. had granted it. It was afterwards in. 
the poffeflion of the Cokes of Holkam, and lately the property of 

the dowager countefs of Leicefter, and entailed on Coke, 

Efqj her hufband's nephew. This view was drawn 1772, 

( PLATE II. ) 

This plate fhews the north gate of the caftle, which flands 
weft of the entrenchment, furrounding the keep or citadel. In 
the fouth wall, near the river, was another gate, now in ruins. - 
From the road communicating between thefe, this view was: 



taken anno 1 771 . On each fide of this road are fome fcattered 
houfes, forming a kind of ftreet. Hereabouts, it is faid, were 
formerly the dwellings of the labourers and artificers belonging 
to the garrifon. 


( Plate I. ) 

"WlLLIAM DE WARREN, the firft earl of Surrey, and 
Gundred his wife, going on a pilgrimage to Rome, in their way 
vifited feveral religious houfes to offer up their orifons, among 
others the abbey of Cluni in Burgundy; where, being refpeclfully 
entertained by the prior and convent, that order fo gained their 
good opinion, that they refolved an abbey they were about to en- 
dow, through the exhortations of Lanfrank, archbifhop of Can- 
terbury, mould be for monks of the Cluniac order, and accordingly 
obtained from that convent four of their body, and anno 1085, 
began to erect here a monaftery for twelve monks. It was dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, and made fubordinate to one that earl had 
founded near his caftle, at Lewes in Suffex. To it he gave the 
church of Acre, with thofe of Metleworld, Roinges, called Le- 
denchirch, Wilkemer and Trunchet, with all that belonged to 
them, and two parts of his tythes. Thefe benefa£tions were 
confirmed by his fon William in three charters, with the dona- 
tions of divers other perfons, and many additions of his own. 

Roger, the fon of Wimer, lord of the honour of Greitinghal, 
in this county, conferred on thefe monks the churches of Keme- 
fton, Dunham, Eirlechefham, Wefenhamptorp, Wichresfeld, 
Winefbotefham, with their tythes and fome other lands. 

Roger, the fon of William the fewer, gave one croft, weft of 
Kemefton; Alan, the fon of Flaald, and his wife Adelin, the 
lands of Kemefton and Sparle ; Roger, fewer to the earl of War- 
ren, the mill at Leckefham ; Drogo, the fon of William, fewer 
of Greftinghal, the churches and lands of Eitlechefham, Dun- 
ham, Kemefton, Wefeham, Congham, and the tythes of Wine- 



Ibotefham, Wichresfeld, Grimfton and Hogade. ■ Roger, the fori 
"of William, fewer, confirmed the grants of the mill of Weftmulri, 
and the land of Wefeham. Ofmund Seutevil, lord of the honour 
of Greftinghal ; Ifabel, the wife of Berengarius de Creffy ; Robert 
de Vallibus; Nicholas Hay; Brien, the fon of Scholland ; Con- 
ilance the wife of Ralph, the fon of Robert de Biera, were all 
benefactors to this houfe, whofe particular deeds may be feen in 
the Monafticon. 

Herbert, bilhop of Norwich, granted his licence for found- 
ing this priory, and directed tythes to be paid to it ; and Ebrad, 
bilhop of that diocefe, confirmed the fame. In the 24th of King 
Edward I. the eftates of this houfe were feized upon, under pre- 
tence of its being an alien priory : but fufhcient proof being 
made, that it was in no refpect fubjecl; to the power or affeffment 
of any foreign prince or monaftery, except only that it was vifited 
l>y the abbot of Cluni, when he came into England, in the thirty- 
fourth year of the fame reign, its privileges and pofTefiions were 
reftored : and King Edward II. in the eighteenth year of his reign, 
ordained that it mould not any ways be molefted as foreign, it 
having in his father's time been proved and declared indigenous" 
or native. 

The priories of Mendham, Bromholm, Remham, and Selvef- 
holm, were all cells to this houfe ; but that of Bromholm was dis- 
charged from its Subjection by the bull of Pope Celeftin, dated in 
the fourth year of his pontificate. 

. The revenues of this community were valued, the 26th of 
King Henry VIII. at 306I. 1 is. 4.6. cb. q. Dugdale; 324I. 17s. 
4d. ob. q. Speed; but according to Stephens, only2o61. us. 4d» 
ob. q. clear. It was (fays Tanner) granted, the 29th of Henry 
VIII. to Thomas duke of Norfolk. It has fmce fucceffively 
belonged to Sir Thomas Grefham, and the Lord Lovel. About 
fifty years ago, it was purchafed by the late earl of .Leicejfter, and 
is at prefent the property of the countefs dowager of Leicefter, his 
widow. This drawing was made anno 1771. 

Vol. IV. B ( PLATE 


( PLATE II. ) 

The following particulars of this priory are given in the Re- 
verend Mr. Parkin's Topographical Hiftory of Freebridge Hun- 
dred and a half, in the county of Norfolk, printed anno 1772. 

On the 22d of November, 1533, Thomas Mailing, prior, and 
his convent, furrendered this priory, with the manor of Caftleacre 
Priors, and all it's appurtenances, to King Henry VIII. In the 
furrender deed, 'tis expreffed, " for certain caufes, jufl and rea- 
fonable, them, their fouls and confciences, efpecially moving, to- 
gether with the fite of all the manors, mefiuages, lands and tene- 
ments, rents and fervices, &c. advowfons, and all manner of things 
thereunto belonging in Norfolk, Suffolk, EfTex, Middlefex, Cam- 
bridgefliire, &c. in England and Wales; and figned by Thomas 
Mailing, prior, and ten monks ; viz. John Hownfwoad, William 
Burguillion, Robert Daniel, Robert Fifhe, William Elys, John 
Bets, Edmund Wodenowe, John Lowe, Robert Saory, and Robert 
Halman ; and thefe following were found guilty of the moil no- 
torious incontinency and uncleannefs, John Bets, William Elys, 
Robert Hoclon, Robert Snape, James Heldington, Edward Acres, 
and Edward Kirby. 

The king on December 22, in his 39th year, granted the fite-' 
of this priory, the prior's manor, the impropriated rectory and 
advowfon of the vicarage, to Thomas Howard, duke of Norfolk ; 
and in the 2d of Elizabeth, the duke of Norfolk alienated it to 
Thomas Grefham, who, in the preceding year, had purchafed alfo 
of Henry, earl of Arundel, the lordfhip of the earl's manor of 
Caftleacre. The duke is faid to convey his part for two thoufand 
pounds. Grefham conveyed his right in both thefe lordfhips to 
Thomas Cecil, afterwards earl of Exeter ; and his fon William, 
earl of Exeter fold them to Sir Edward Coke; whofe defcendanf, 
the Right Honourable Thomas Coke, earl of Leicefler, was lord 
of the manor of Arundel, or Earl's, Prior's, and Fox's impro- 
priator and patron of the vicarage. 



The fite of the priory church lies well of the caftle, was a 
venerable large Gothic pile of free Hone, flint, &c. and built in a 
cathedral or conventual manner j great part of the front, or weft 
end of it is ftill remaining, where the principal entrance was 
through a great arch, over which was a ftately window ; on each 
fide of the great door were doors to enter into the N. and S; ifles, 
under the tower, as the grand doors ferved for an entrance into 
the nave or body. At the north and fouth end of this front, or 
weft end, ftood two towers, fupported by ftrong arches and pil^ 
lars. The nave or body had twelve great pillars, making feven 
arches on each fide, the loweft joining to the towers. On the 
eaft end of the nave ftood the grand tower, fupported by four 
great pillars, through which was the entrance into the choir. On, 
the fouth and north fides of this tower were two crofs ifles or 
tranfepts ; and at the end of the north tranfept there feems to 
have been a chapel or veftiary. The choir was of equal breadth 
with the nave and ifles, but much fhorter, and, at the eaft end of 
it, was in form of a chapel j and here ftood the high altar, as I 
take it. 

The cloyfter was on the fouth fide of the church, and had an 
entrance into it at the weft end of theibuth iile, near to the tow- 
er; and another at the eaft end of the faid ifle, near the grand 
tower. The chapter houfe feems to have joined to the eaft fide of 
the cloifter, and the dormitory to have been over the weft part of 
the cloifter. Weft of the cloifter, and adjoining, was the prior's 
apartment, now converted into a farm-houfe. In a large room 
above ftairs, called now the prior's dining room, is a curious bow 

window of ftone, confining of nine pannels. In the hrft were 

the arms of the priory painted on the glafs.— — In the fecond, the 
arms of the earl of Arundel and earl Warren, quarterly, but now 

broke and gone. In the third, Mowbray, duke of Norfolk ; 

gules, a lion rampant, argent. Fourth, the red and white rofe 

united, and a crown over it. Fifth, France and England quar- 
terly. Sixth, the rofe, &c. as above. Seventh, Earl Warren's 

arms. — ■ — Eighth, quarterly, the earl of Arundel in the firft and 



fourth quarters ; and in the fecond and third, matrevers, fable, 
fretty, or, and Fitz Alane, baron of Clun, P. fefs, azure and ar- 
gent, quarterly. Ninth, argent, a crofs compony, or and azure, 

between twelve crofs croiTiets, fiche, fable ; the priory arms, as I 
take it, and thefe letters I. W. joined together by a knot, and under 
it SPITIV PRINCIPALI CONFIRMA ME. By this it appears, 
that this window was built by John Winchelfey, prior in the reign 
of Henry VII. or VIII. Afterwards it might be converted into 
a dining-room j but that it was originally a large chapel, and this 
room was only the weft end of it, is apparent ; it extended to the 
fouth tower of the church, where at the eaft end of it is a large 
window, as in a chapel, and a ftep or afcent here, as to an altar; 
and on the fouth wall, near to this afcent, is an arched covered 
feat of ftone, riling in form of a pyramid, with the fhield of the 
Earl Warren alone j which teftifies it to be an antique pile, built 
in their time, before the patronage of the priory came to the earls 
of Arundel ; and at the north-eaft corner, near to the altar-place, 
is a door- place with a ftone arch ; and here was a ftone ftair-cafe 
which led down into the cloifter. 

In another room was, a few years paft, in a window, the broken 
portraiture of one of the earls of Arundel, in armour, with a 
broad fword in his hand ; and on his furcoat, the arms of Arun- 
del, Matrevers and Clun, as above, and part of the legend, " My 

truft ys j" alfo on a chapeau, gules, and oaken flip, vert, 

acorned, or. The fite of this priory took in feveral acres. The 
grand entrance was north of the priory church, which is now 
ftanding, a large and ftately gate-houfe of free-Hone. Over the 
arch, as you enter, are the arms of the Earl Warren of Arundel, 
and Earl Warren, quarterly, France and England, and thofe of 
the priory. 

The whole fite was inclofed with a lofty ftone wall, good part 
of which is ftili ftanding. 



PR I O R S. 

Angevin a occurs about 1 130.— Jordan about 11 60. —Richard 
occurs prior in Bifhop Turbas's time, bifhop of Norwich. — Odo 
occurs about 11 80.— Hugh in 11 90 and 1195. 

Maimond about 1200. — Lambert de Kempfton in 1203.— -Phi- 
lip de Mortimer in 1203 and 121 1. — Robert de Alenfoh, about 
1220, probably the fame with Robert de Bozun, who occurs in 
1219 and 1227. Ralph de Wefenham in 1239. — William -de 
Kent. — Adam in 1250. — John de Granges in 1252 and 1255. — s 
Walter de Stanmere in 1258 and 1267.— -Robert de Hakebach in 
1270.— William. de Scorham. Benedict in 1286. 

Robert Porter, in 1308. — John Homelyn — John de Acre — 
Walter de Franeeys in 131 1. — Peter de Jocello in 13 17 and 1324. 
■ — Guy de Choryns in 1329 and 1337.— William de Warren.— 
Walter Pycott. — Thomas Wygenhale.— John Okinfton. — Simon 
Sutton. 1 — 'Thomas Bayley.— Thomas Tunbridge. 

John Shareshale in 1428.-— Thomas Bates.— Richard Ben- 
net in 1452.— Nicholas .—John Plumflede.— John Amflets in 1482. 

John Winch else a occurs in 15 10. — Thomas Chambers.^- 
Thomas Mailing admitted prior in June 1519$ fometimes called 
Thomas de Caftle-acre : he was prefented and nominated by the 
bifhop of Norwich, with John Salisbury, late prior of St. Faith's, 
at Horfham in Norfolk, to be fuffragan bifhop of Thetford, when 
Archbifhop Cranmer chofe Salifbury. 

Many perfons of quality were here buried, efpecially thofe 
who held lordfhips, and were benefactors to this priory, under 
the earl Warren. Alice, widow of Sir Eudo de Arfie, daughter 
of Harvey-Canis, lord of Durham Magna, gave 6s. rent per ann. 
out of lands in the tenure of Alianore, and Alice her daughter, 
to be paid to the facrift, for the maintenance of a lamp before 
the crofs, where the body of her hufband refts j witnefs Sir Alex- 
ander Arfie, her fon and heir ; Sir Frederick de Capravill ; Regi- 
nald de Geyton, then, fenefchal of Acre. Sir Richard le Rus, 
lord of Baft Lexham, gave his body to be buried, with five acres 

Wol. IV. C of 


of land, and i2d. per annum, rent." This view, drawn from the 
fouth-eait corner of the cloifter, and fhewing the eaft window of 
what is called the prior's lodgings, was taken anno 1771. 


(Plate I. ) 

1 H I S building ftands in the manor of Caftor, from which it 
takes it's name, diftant north from Great Yarmouth about three 
miles. It feems rather to have been a cancellated manfion, than 
an edifice calculated for defence. The time of its erection is not 
exactly known ; but from it's materials, which are brick, it cannot 
be older than about the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. when 
that manor belonged to Sir John Faftolffe, a general and knight 
of the garter. The manor of Caftor had been in that family ever 
fince the 9th of Edward II. when Thomas Faftolffe purchafed it 
of Sir Oliver Ingham, Knt. and it is more than probable fome 
houfe or caftle might then be ftanding ; indeed Tanner mentions 
one as early as Edward I. 

A MS. in the poffeflion of the late Mr. Anftis, Garter King of 
Arms, relates that Sir John Faftolffe having taken the duke of 
Alengon prifoner at the battle of Agincourt, that duke agreed as 
a ranfom to build a caftle here, fimilar to his own in France j in 
confequence of which agreement this caftle was erected at his 
expence. The evidence of this MS. is corroborated by a com- 
mon tradition to the fame effect. 

A MS. account of this building, by Mr. Blomfield, fays, that 
Henry V. gave licence to Sir John to build Caftor Houfe as ftrong 
as himfelf could devife, and appointed it as a fortification for 
Yarmouth. This permiftion it is, however, evident he did not 
avail himfelf of, and perhaps thofe were only words of courfe 
infcrted in his licence to crenellate. The battle of Agincourt was. 
fought anno 1415 j and fuppofing this caftle to have been begun 
even three or four years after that event, it will place Caftor Caftle 
very forward among the oldeft brick buildings in this kingdom. 


Norfolk. u 

Sir John Faftolffe, who died anno 1459, ^ * s ^ a ^ intended to 
have founded here a college for a matter, fix priefts, and feven 
poor men, and to have endowed it with an annuity of one hun- 
dred and twenty marks, chargeable upon feveral manors. A peti- 
tion was accordingly exhibited to the crown for a licence and an . 
inquifition taken thereupon ; but this defign was never completed, 
probably owing to the death of Sir John, fo that it dwindled down 
to a chantry of 53s. per ann. as appears by the valuation taken 
26 Henry, VIII. 

Tanner fays, " There had been an ancient free chapel in the 
manor houfe here, dedicated to St. John the Baptift, as early as 
the reign of Edward I. wherein Sir John FalftorT, who died 38th 
Henry VI. intended to have erected a college for feven monks, or 
fecular priefts (one of whom to be head) and feven poor men, and 
to endow the fame with one hundred and twenty marks rent- 
charge, out of feveral manors, which he gave or fold to his coufiii 
John Pafton fen. Efq; charged with this charity. This Mr. Pafton 
fen. laboured to eftablifli this pious foundation, according to Sir 
John FalftofFs defign, till his death, 6 Edward IV. as did after- 
wards his fon and heir Sir John Pafton, Knight j but whether it 
was incorporated and fully fettled, I much doubt, there being no 
further mention of it, either in the rolls or in the bifhop of Nor- 
wich's Regiftry ; only in the valuation 26 Henry VIII. there is faid 
to have been a chantry in Caftre Hall, of the foundation of Sir 
John FalftofF, Knt. worth 2I. 13s. 4d. per ann."- According to 
Sir John's intended foundation, the mailer of the college v/as to 
have 10I. per ann. every prieft ten marks, every poor man 40s. 
and the fourth part of the great manfion here for habitation. 

William Botener, alias de Worcefter, in his Itinerary, 
preferved in Bennet College, Cambridge, relates, that this caftle 
was befieged twice in the reign of Edward IV. once by the duke 
of Norfolk, and another time by the Lord Scales. In the account 
of thefe tranfactions, this foundation is mentioned as being di- 
rected by the laft will of Sir John Falftolffe. As this extract con- 


tains fevcral very curious particulars, it fhall be given in length ii<j 
the next plate. 

John Ives, jun. Efq; of Yarmouth, from whofe collection this 
extract was obtained, as alfo that of Blomfield, likewife kindly 
communicated a plan of this building,, from which the following 
defcription is taken ; but as it has no fcale annexed, the meafures 
cannot be afcertained. 

This manfion or caftle enclofed a court, in figure a rectangled 
parallelogram, whofe fouth and north fides were fomewhat larger 
than thofe on the eaft and weft. On the north-weft angle was the 
tower, which according to Anftis, is upwards of one hundred feet 
in height. The grand entrance lay over a draw- bridge on the 
weft fide. 

On the right hand, on entering the great hall, which Wor- 
cefter's MS. fays meafured fifty-nine feet in length and twenty- 
eight in breadth, adjoining to this tower, was the dining-room, 
the great fire-place of which is ftill to be feen : directly eaft of 
this, communicating by a draw-bridge, flood the college, which 
appears to have encompafTed three fides of a fquare, whofe area 
was larger than that included within the walls of the manfion. 
Its weft fide was bounded by the mote ; at its fouth-eaft and 
north-eaft angles it had two round towers j towards the weft end 
of its north fide ran the great avenue. This building was in all 
likelihood the ancient hall or manfion mentioned by Tanner. 

Round the modern caftle ran a mote, which, according to 
tradition, communicated with a navigable creek. In a fmall build- 
ing now ufed for a farm-houfe, a little fouth-weft of the manfion, 
is fhewn a large arch, capable of receiving a boat of confiderable 
burthen : this is called the barge-houfe. When it is' confidered 
the changes the different creeks and channels hereabouts have 
undergone, this affertion will not appear improbable. 

At prefent only the weft and north walls of the building are 
remaining, together with the tower. The fouth and eaft- fides 
are nearly levelled with the ground ; what is remaining of the 
college is converted into barns and ftables. On an arch over a 



bow-window in the infide of thefe ruins was the coat of arms of 
Sir John Falftolffe, furrounded with the garter, fairly carved in 
Hone. This has lately been taken down, and is depofited in fome 
public library. This view, which fhews the fouth'-weft afpecl: of 
the building, was drawn anno 1775. 

( PLATE II. ) 

The following is the extract refpecling this cattle, mentioned 
in the preceding plate. It is taken from the Itinerary of William 
Botoner, alias de Worcefter, in the library of Benet's college, 
Cambridge. This Botoner was an hiftorian, bard and herald: 
he wrote the life and actions of Sir John Faftolf, which book is 
fuppofed to have once been in the MS. Library at Lambeth. 

On the feaft of the Afiumption of the Bleffed Mary, nine 
years before the caftle 'was befieged on St: Bartholomew's Day, a 
cruel day, with guns at the caftle, and the fiege lafted for feven 
days. , 

Here follows the names, of the men at arms befieging the 
caflle and fortrefs of Caftle Faftolf, beginning on Monday before 

the feaft of St. Bartholomew, in the year of the King 

Edward IV. the king then being at Coventry, and the faid fiege 
continued till day of September. 

John Duke of Norfolk, his Brother, 

Sir Wm. Calthorp, R. Letham, Efq; of Plumftede, . 

Sir Gilbert Debenham, ■ Lancaftre, Efq; 

Sir Will. Brandon, Knt. 

Humfrey Talbot, Knt. 

Sir John Arvenyngham firft fent to deliver the caftle to the 
duke, but the lieutenant refufed. 

Thomas Wingfield, Efq; Sir Humphry Talbot, 

William Wingfield, Efq; . Sir Will. Calthorpe, 

Swanfey, Efq; Sir J. Hevingham, 

Hue. Anftyn, Efq;. Sir Gilbert Debenham, 

John Waldgrace, Knt. Sir T. Wyngfield, 

Debenham, jun. Sir William Brandon, 

Sir Philip Wentworth, Knt. 
Mr. Symond Fitzfymonde, Efqj 
Vol. IV, D Item 

i 4 NO R F O L K. 

Item eleven Tons Lancaftrcs Arclibifhop Selfsangor, by Mr. Tympeilcy, Efcy 
James RadclyfF, Efq; Mr. Richard Southwell, Efq; 

Black John de Radclytt Mr. Gilbert Debenham, fen. Efq; 

Sir William Debenham, Mr. Broke, ion of Lord Cobham, Efq; 

Sir Robert Debenham, Mr. Bardwell of Harlyng, Norfolk, Efq; 

Thcfonof Lawrence Reynford, Knt. Mr. Stewarde, from near Cromer, Efq; 
The fon of Foulke Stafford, Efq; 

Memorandum, Lord Anthony, Lord Scalys, likewife another 
time entered the caftle of Caftle Faftolf, in the name of King Ed- 
ward IV. and a certain curfed William Yelverton of the priory of 

Norwich, with his help, and Scanning, Gentleman, with other 

fervants of that lord, kept porTeilion of the caftle for the fpace of 

half , to the great prejudice of the goods of the faid caftle, 

under the fcandalous and groundless pretence, that John Pafton, 
Efq; was a neif of the faid king, although the fame was falfe. 

Names of the perfons defending the faid caftle againft the 
duke. John Pafton, junior, Efq; defended the fiege in the place 
of John Pafton, Knt. his brother, who was abfent. 

J. Dawbenny, Efq; killed with a Davy Coke, fervant of J. F. 

quarrel*, John Roos of Philby, 

Ofborn Berney, Efq; John Ofbern of Philby, 

Ofbern de Caftre, valet -j-, J°hn Norwode, 

Sander Cokby de Maltby, valet, Raulyns, a foreigner, 

Richard Tolle, valet, Will. Peny, a foldier of Calais, 

John Bett, valet, John Life of Calais, 

Mundynet, born in France, Mathew Ducleman, 

Tho. Salern of Caftor, Thomas Stompys % handles and will 
John Vincent, -j . fhbot with a bowe for a noble, 

W. Vincent, > . . ' John Pamnyng of Norwich, 

W. Wod, J ' •" John Chapman, a foldier belonging to 

R. Bylys, the Duke of Somerfet, 

.Robert Ormond de Maltby, John Jackfon of Lancaflxire, 

John Spark of Marfliam 

And firft, John the afore-named duke, a week before liege was 
laid to this caftle, fent John Hevenyngham, Knt. a relation of 
Sir John Faftolf, with a meflage to John Pafton, Efq; the younger, 

* A dart fhot from a crofs bow. f Valet here probably means, a fervant; though it 

often is put for a cadet or volunteer, alro young gentlemen under the age of eighteen. % In the 

original, " Handles et vult fagittarc pro noble." 



H-f/ie dining Jtorrm^ 

C . Ceilan* or- Wi/ie, Vcut&j 


E . t/ie* drvtw-(rr-u>/gtej 


G. t/wtai) (Jourfe 

I . ttze tfrtuttt .Avenue* 

K. ttie, Cortege, 

Jb&foty or Ch/r/c/ • tit. fife jVsr/fM . 


lieutenant of John Pafton, Knt. his brother, for the fafe keeping 
thereof to the ufe of his brother, during his abfence on the fer- 
vice and buiinefs, A. . . B. . . importing that he the duke had 

purchafed the faid caftle of a certain William Yelverton — ; , 

Juftice of Norfolk, named one of the executors of Sir John Faf- 
tolf, Knt. Lord of this caftle, although it was contrary to his will 
and teftament that it mould be fold j he having there ordained, 
that it mould be a houfe of prayer, and for poor people for ever, 
to be founded for offering up prayers for his foul, and the fouls 
of his parents. And he, the faid lieutenant of the caftle, refafed 
the delivery of the caftle, becaufe he had not received the cuftody 
thereof from the faid duke, but only from John Pafton, his bro- 
ther. At length within ten days from that time, viz. on the faid 
Monday, the faid, duke with his army, to the number of about 
three thoufand armed men, furrounded the caftle, and attacked it 
in three places with machines, called in Engliih guns, culverynes, 
&c. &C. and other artillery, ordinance, and archers. 

The above is written in the moft barbarous Latin imaginable, 
and in fo bad a hand that the tranfcriber was obliged to guefs at 
feveral words. Nothing refpecting this fiege occurs in our ancient 
Chronicles. Befides this tranfcript, Mr. Ives is poifeffed of feveral 
original MSS. relating to Sir J. Faftolf, one of them an account 
iigned by himfelf ; an exact, copy of this fignature is here given. 

The following paftage is tranfcribed from the fame book, pub- 
lished fince the printing of the firft edition of this work 1454, 
Caftle Faftolf was taken a fecond time, by the watchfulnefs of the 
fervant to the duke of Norfolk, viz. John Colby. The valets and 
fervants of John Pafton, Knt. were fleeping in the afternoon, viz. 
the Lord's-day, 23d of June, to the great prejudice of the goods 
of Faftolf, Knt. in the cuftody of the faid Pafton. This view, 
which reprefents the eaft afpect, was drawn anno 1775. 




1 H E ipot whereon this caftle ftands, had on it a fortrefs or place 
of defence in the Saxon times, conftru&ed by King Uffa about 
the year sj$ ; after which a royal cattle was built thereon by 
Alfred the Great, before the year 872, which being deftroyed by 
Sueno the Dane, in 1004, was rebuilt by King Canute, about the 
year 1018, and was for a long time gallantly defended againft the 
forces of William the Conqueror, in the year 1075, by Emma> 
wife of Ralph de Wafet, earl of Norfolk, who at length, forced 
by famine, furrendered it on condition that the befieged mould 
have leave to depart the realm. This building Blomefleld fupf- 
pofes was removed to make room for the prefent caftle, whofe- 
magnificent remains are here fhewn, which was erected by Roger 

On the death of the Conqueror, Roger Bigod took part with 
Robert, furnamed Courthofe, and held this caftle, then in his 
cuftody, for him; but on that difpute being compromifed, Wil- 
liam Rufus, as had before been ftipulated, fuffered it to continue 
in his hands. 

In the reign of Henry I. Roger, William, and Hugh Bigod 
were fucceflively conftables of this caftle, which was, then ufed as 
a prifon. 

In the beginning of the reign of King Stephen, Hugh Bigod 
was continued in this office, he. having rendered that king ait 
efTential fervice, by declaring that Henry I. had nominated him. 
his fuccefibr, in preference to his daughter Maud ; but a fhort 
time after, Stephen deprived him of the caftle, and granted the 
cuftody thereof to his natural fon William de Blois. 

On the acceftion of Henry II. that king took the caftle into 
his own hands; but about the year 11 63, he again committed it 
to the care of Hugh Bigod ; but he entering into a rebellion, the 
king, anno 1174, refumcd it). Hugh going to the holy land*, 
where he died. 



In the reign of Richard I. Roger Bigod, fon of the above 
Hugh, was conftable of this caftle, which he held till the follow* 
ing reign, when anno 1215, he liding with the barons, King John 
by patent, appointed William Marfhall, earl of Pembroke, and 
John Fitz Robert, conftables of the caftle of Orfordand Norwich j 
but they did not long hold them - 3 for on the 1 9th of July, in the 
fame year, Hubert de Burgh, a Norfolk man born, afterwards 
earl of Kent, was made governor of thefe catties. 

In the reign of Henry III. this caftle was taken by the dauphin* 
without any refiftance : he made William de Beaumont governor 
thereof j and when that prince quitted this kingdom, Hubert de 
Burgh again took pofleffion of it ; but the king being reconciled 
to Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk, committed it to his cuftody. 
He died anno 1200, and was fucceeded in his eftates and honours 
by his fon Hugh, who dying the next year, the king appointed 
Hubert de Burgh, his chief juftice, to have cuftody of his caftles, 
lands and honours : probably Hugh his fon was a minor. 

In 1224, this caftle was in the keeping of Roger Bigod, who 
furrendered it to the king. In 1240, this with the caftle of Or- 
ford, were committed to the cuftody of the fherifF of Norfolk and 
Suffolk; and in 1260, the magiftrates of the city were obliged to 
fue for the royal pardon, for prefuming to enter into the liberties 
of the caftle. In 1261, Philip Marmion, of Tarn worth Caftle* 
was made conftable of the caftles of Norwich and Orford. 

In 1266, this caftle was plundered by the barons ; in 1273, 
Roger Bigod, earl of Norfolk, had the cuftody of it j and in 1293, 
it was the county gaol, and the prior of Norwich allowed yearly 
ten quarters of wheat, baked into bread, 6s. 8d. to the conftable, 
i8d. to the conftable's clerk, i2d. to the watchman, i8d. to Wil- 
liam de Knapton, the fheriff's efquire, and 40s. on Candlemas* 
day, to the fheriff himfelf. 

Irt 1300, Roger Bigod refigned it into the king's hands $ and 
in 13 12, Thomas de Brotherton became conftable here, and fitted 
up the caftle in the manner we now fee, except it's battlementSj 
which (fays Blomefield) though fo great an ornament to this 

W,£. IV. E pncisnt 


ancient pile, were not many years fmce taken down." His arms 
are carved on the pilafter of the arch of the ftair-cafe, which, 
with the battlements, were built by him. The battlements have 
been fince reftored. 

In 1325, the feflions were directed to be held here 5 and the 
caftle, in 1399, was made the public gaol for the county. 

In the ifl of Edward IV. as appears by the Rolls of Parliament, 
John Howard, Knt. was appointed conftable of this caftle by 
letters patent, dated 3d of February. In the 2d year of the reign 
of Richard III. John, duke of Norfolk, had a grant of the office 
of conftable of the caftle of Norwich, tc from March laft paft," 
during his life with 20I. fee from the ifTues of the counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, No. 433, MSS. Bib. Harl. 

In the year 1396, the ditches and meadow belonging to the 
caftle were leafed for building ; and in 1509, the city paid 54I. 4s. 
to the king, as a referved rent for the fame, an mquifition taken 
anno 1344, having found that they belonged to him. 

The bifhop of Norwich, and the abbot of St. Edmund's-bury, 
both ufed to pay towards the caftle-yard -, as did alfo the bifhop 
of Ely, and abbot of Longley. 

" This caftle, fays Blomefield, was defended by a wall round 
the hill it ftands on, and three ditches alfo round it. The extent 
of the outermoft ditch reached on the weft part, to the edge of the 
prefent market-place ; on the north to London Lane, as it is now 
called, which it included; and on the eaft, almoft to Conisford 
Street : the poftern or back entrance, was on the north-eaft part, 
for a communication to the fite of the earl's palace, the precinct 
of which joined to it, and contained the whole, between the out- 
ward ditch and Tombland ; the fouthern part reached to the 
Golden Ball Lane, at the entrance of which the grand gate ftood, 
from which there were bridges over each of the ditches : the firft 
has been immemorially deftroyed, but the ruins of the fecond 
remained till the ditches were levelled by the city, for to keep 
their market for all manner of cattle, fwine, &c. the third is left^ 
which hath one arch only under it, but of fuch dimenfions, if it 



were open to the bottom, (great part of it being flopped with earth) 
that I believe very few in England exceed it. The gate on the 
bridge is now in ruins." 

Within the caftle is a royal free chapel, exempt from all epis- 
copal jurifdic"lion, vifitable by the king only. In 1221, the dean 
of Norwich having attempted to exercife his authority on fome 
matters reflecting it, was forced to obtain his pardon of the king. 
It confifted only of one chaplain, who was to celebrate mafs for 
the fouls of all the kings before and fince the conqueft. The x 
wills of perfons dying within the precincts of the caftle, were 
proved before the conftable and this chaplain. At prefent it 
ferves for a chapel for the prifoners. The chaplain is appointed 
by the juftices of peace for the county. 

The building here fhewn was the keep. The gate on the 
bridge mentioned by Blomefield as in ruins, was taken down 
when the caftle was laft repaired. This view, which exhibits the 
north-eaft afpect, was drawn anno 1775. 


A HIS very fingular edifice ftands upon a circular mount 011 
the eaftern fide of the town of Lynn in Norfolk, now making 
part of the mound of the modern fortifications thrown up round 
that place ; it is included within a baftion. 

The lower octagonal part is built with brick faced with ftone,. 
the upper part, in the form of a crofs, is of polifhed ftone, the top 
part of brick. It confifts of three ftories of apartments, the loweft 
is arched, and has within it a ciftern which feems not to have 
been an original part of the building, but to have been added 
fince, for the purpofe perhaps of a refervoir for water during the 
time when the town was befieged in the civil wars ; the fecond* 
ftory is likewife arched, a flight of ftone flairs, now in ruins, ran 
round thefe apartments towards the internal circumference of the 
octagonal part, and led up to the upper ftone building, which 
certainly was a chapel :. common information fays, the uppermoit 



multangular brick part has been chimnies, but as no leading flues 
to the chimnies are to be feen, it is rather probable it was the 
lhaft of a crofs elevated above the whole. Thus much as to the 
prefent ftate of this building ; as to its antiquity the reader will 
be pleafed to receive his information on that point from Parkens's 
continuation of Blomfield's Hiftory of Norfolk, where it is thus 
confufedly defcribed : 

" Our Lady on the Mount or Wall and Gild. 

This chapel was defaced before the 3d of Elizabeth, as ap- 
pears from an inquifition then taken. 

In Dr. Brown's Travels, fol. edit. p. 43, is a cut of a Greek 
monaftery, very much in the form of this chapel, of four ftories 
in height, one lefs than the other, the three loweft fquare, the up- 
permofr. ftory an octagon, like a fteeple. 

These are the brethren and fitters of the Guild Tigulat 
founded to the honour and purification of the Bleffed Virgin 
Mary, anno 3d Edward III. 

Thomas de Langham and Chriftian his wife. 

Charles de Secheford and Alice his wife. 

Robert de Derby and Margery his wife, William fon of the 
faid Robert, &c. 

Robert feems to be alderman of the guild. 

These are the four morwefpeches of the faid guild. The firfr. 
morwefpeche is on the Sunday (le Demeynge prochein) after the 
Purification of the Bleffed Virgin ; the fecond on the day of the 
Annunciation of our Lady ; the third on the day of the Affump- 
tion of our Lady ; the fourth on the day of the Conception of 
our Lady. 

It is ordained, that if any of the bretheren be fummoned on 
any of the four morwefpeches, and are in the faid town and make 
default, they mail pay one penny to the honour of our Lady. 

There is a chimney now {landing in it, creeled during the 
plague, where it was made a poft-houie. 

In 1509 it was in ufe, when in the compotus of the prior of 
St. Margaret we find. v 


" De pixidib. omnium fandtor. in eccles, St. Margaret et Ca- 
pellis St. Nicholai et St. Jacobi una ciim Capella Beatas Marias ad 
Pontem. 6s. 4d. 

De Capella Beatae Marias de Monte. 16s. iod. which fhews 
how great the Madona here was held." 

This building is likewife mentioned by Macharel in his Hi- 
ftory of Lynn, who fays, at a little diftance from the town ftands 
another ruinous fabrick, called the Lady's Mount, in which (no 
doubt) by fome remains of architecture, it appears there has been 
a chapel dedicated to the BlefTed Virgin. This religious place, 
fay the ancient inhabitants, was a receptacle for the pilgrims, 
who took this in the way to fay their orifons at, as they travelled 
along towards that fometime famous and celebrated priory or 
convent of our Lady of Walfingham, a village fo much renowned 
all over England for pilgrimage to the Virgin Mary, that he who 
had not in that age vifited and prefented it with offerings, was 
accounted irreligious." This view was drawn anno 1776. 


F this monaftery the following account is given by Tanner 
in the Notitia Monaftica : 

" In this then famous town was a fociety of religious perfons 
in the church of St. Mary, as early as the reign of King Edward 
the Confeflbr, if not before. Hither Arfaftus, or Herfafhis, bi- 
fhop of the Eaft Angles, removed his epifcopal feat from North 
Elmham, A. D. 1075. But it continued here only nineteen or 
twenty years, and then was tranflated to Norwich. After which, 
that great nobleman, Roger Bigod, or Bigot, by the advice of Bi- 
fhop Herbert, and others, built a monaftery here, about A. D. 
1 1 04 j and fhortly after brought 'Cluniac monks from Lewes in 
SufTex, and placed them in it, making it fubordinate to the abbey 
of Cluny in France. But this houfe and place being found in- 
convenient, the fame generous nobleman began on the other fide 
of the water, a little without the town, a moft ftately monaftery 

Vol. IV. F and 


and church, to the honour alio of the BlefTed Virgin Mary ; but 
dying fhortly after, Prior Stephen carried on the work, and met 
with fo much encouragement, that he finifhed it in about feven 
years, and removed his convent into it on the feafl of St. Martin, 
A. D. 1 1 14. This priory was made denifon 50 Edward III. and 
26 Henry VIII. was found to be endowed with 312I. 14s. 4d. ob. 
9 per ann. as Dugdale ; and 418I. 6s. 3d. as Speed j and was 
granted in Exchange, 32 Henry VIII. to its patron, Thomas duke 
of Norfolk, who once intended to refound herein a college of fe- 
cular priefts." 

This monaftery was the burial-place of the Bigods, and after 
them, of the Mowbreys, created dukes of Norfolk, as alfo of the 
Howards, their fucceflbrs. 

Here were feventeen monks. The names of the priors are thus 
recorded by Browne Willis, in his Hiftory of Abbies, taken, as he 
fays, from Dr. Tanner's Collections. 

Stephen occurs prior anno 1 130. In the Monafticon, after 
him, I meet with Conftantine j and then Martin, anno 1189 and 
1 197. Richard was prior anno 1216 and 1236; as was Stephen 
anno 1257, 41 H. III. and William anno 1261, $$ H.III. The 
next I find is Vincent, who occurs anno 1286 and 1297. His fuc- 
ceflbr, I guefs, was Thomas le Bigod, confirmed prior, 31 Dec. 
1304 ; after him I met with James, anno 1335 j on whofe deposi- 
tion on account of his age, anno 135.5, JefFery de Rocherio was. 
placed in his ltead; he prefided anno 1369, as did John de Ford- 
ham, anno 1372, who was, as I fuppofe, the fame perfon who 
was made 1388, bifhop of Ely; his fucceffor was one John, 
whofe furname I do not meet with j he occurs anno 1390 and al- 
fo 1395, as does one John Ixworth in 142.8, whether he be the 
fame with the laft I cannot determine ; the next in my catalogue- 
is Nichols, anno 143 1 ; on whofe death or ceffion the priory be- 
came vacant, anno 1438 ; after him I met with one John, anno 
1 44 1 j query if he be the fame with John Vefey; who governed 
anno 1461 and 14795 his fucceffor feems to have been Robert,, 
who occurs anno 1485, and 1497, as does one R°g ei > anno 1503, 



and William, anno 1519, and again at the diffolution, anno 1540, 
at which time he with thirteen canons or monks, furrendered this 
houfe. This view was drawn anno 1777. 


1 HIS gate ftands on the north-eaft fide of the abbey. It is 
built moftly with pebble and flint, coignedwith fquare ftones and 
had over it two ftories of apartments j adjoining to it are fome 
rooms and ftables, ufed as fiich by the monks. From the ftile of 
the architecture this gate does not feem older than the reign of 
Richard III. or Henry VII. The view here given fhews its inner 
fide, and was drawn anno 1777. 


A COUNCIL held by Lanfranc, archbifhop of Canterbury, 
having determined that all bifhop's fees which were fettled in vil- 
lages, fhould be removed to the moft eminent cities in their 
diocefes j in confequence of this regulation the fee of Norfolk 
was removed to Thetford, anno 1075, as being a more populous 
and wealthy place than Elmham, where it had before been efta- 

The mother church of this place (fays Blomfield) was dedi- 
cated to St. Mary, and flood where the free-fchool and m after of 
the hofpitals houfe now ftands, this, in all probability belonged 
to the bifhop of that province (who it is thought had a houfe near 
it) till Stigand retained it in his hands with other revenues of the 
bifhoprick after he had left the fee j but on his difgrace, the king 
gave it with the four churches appendant and all that belonged 
to them, to Bifhop Arfaft'and his heirs, in fee and inheritance. 
Arfaft here placed his epifcopal chair, and afterwards gave the 
inheritance of it to Richard his eldeft fon, and the four other 
churches to his other fons and their heirs.. 



This Arfaft affifted by Roger Bigod rebuilt the church, dedi- 
cating it to St. Mary, the Holy Trinity and All Saints, and joined 
his palace or manfion-houfe to the north fide of it towards 
the weft end, of which there is fo much now ftanding, which 
ferves for the wall to a garden facing the canons, that we can 
plainly diftinguifli his breadth. It confided of a nave, two ifles, 
a north and fouth tranfept (the arch of which now divides the 
fchool and mafter's apartments) and a chancel or choir, the eaft 
end of which reached the ftreet within about twelve yards, as its 
foundation difcovers, fo that it was a noble church fit for the 
cathedral of fuch a fee. 

The bifhop's fee being tranflated to Norwich, Robert Bigod, 
continues Blomfield, purchafed the cathedral or church of St. 
Mary, of Richard fon of Bifhop Arfaft, and by the advice and 
confent of Henry I. and at the requeft of Bifhop Herbert, placed 
therein Cluniac monks, having erected a timber building for their 

He foon after begun a cloifter of ftone, the area of which is 
now vifible between the church and river, the walls of the refec- 
tory, which were on the north fide of the court, not far from it, 
are now in a great meafure ftanding. The cloifter was near three 
years building, during which time this fituation being found too 
fmall and inconvenient, their founder was prevailed upon to 
remove them to the Norfolk fide of the river; he accordingly 
built the monaftery now called the abbey, and in the year 1107, 
or according to others 11 14, the whole convent removed thither 
except two or three monks, who for a while kept it as a cell to 
their new houfe, but afterwards totally forfook it, and it was ex- 
changed by them for lands more convenient to their new fituation, 
and fo became joined to the dominion or lordfhip. The buildings 
continued defolate and in ruins till the time of King Edward III. 
when Sir Edward Gonvile, parfon of Terrington in Norfolk, 
fteward to Henry, earl of Lancafter, perfuaded that nobleman to 
repair the church and buildings, and to introduce there friars, 
preachers of the order of St. Dominic. This being accomplifhed 



about the year 1327, it became a priory of friars preach ers, and 
the priors were always nominated by the lords of the dominion 
of Thetford, to which the earl annexed the patronage, and con- 
firmed by the fuperior of their order. 

In 1347, the earl of Lancafter enlarged their premifes with the 
fite of the Domus Dei, an hofpital which flood between their 
cloifter and the High Street, on which they cleared away all the 
buildings except the hofpital houfe, wherein they kept a brother 
or two, who daily begged what he could of the pafTengers for the 
benefit of the houfe, this fometimes has occafioned the priory to 
be confounded with the Domus Dei. 

This priory was furrendered to King Henry VIII. the prior 
and five bretheren only figning the inftrument : Blomfield fnp- 
pofes there might have been a great number in the cloifter who 
would not join in it j Willis fays, the church of the Dominicans 
at Thetford was thirty-fix paces long. The fite was granted to 
Sir Richard Fulmerfton, by the name of the fite of the Friars 
Preachers, formerly called the Hofpital Houfe of God in Thet- 
ford, who was to hold it in capite of the queen, by the fervice of 
the 20th part of a fee, and 5d. ob. per ann. rent. He left it 
ta his heirefs, and it defcended to Sir Edward Clere, who fold 
it with the canons farm, to which it now belongs!, to Robert 
Chausfield and others, in truft for the earl of Arundel, and 
thus came to the noble family of the Howards, to whom it now 

In this view is alfo fhewn the back of the fchool and hofpital, 
built in purfuance of the will of Sir Richard Fulmerfton, dated 
anno 1566, on the ruins of the old cathedral; there had been 
a fchool in this town very early, as is evident from the many 
collations to it by the bifhop in whofe donation it was, one as 
early as 1328, but from 1496 no more occur, fo that it feems 
probable the fchool ceafed till Sir Richard Fulmerfton's time, 
who erected one, and paid the mafter during his life, and made 
the above provifion by his will. The hofpital part is for the 

Vol. IV. G habitation 



habitation of four poor perfons, two men and two women. 
This houie is faid to have been the birth-place and refidence of 
that well known antiquary, Mr. Thomas Martin, This view was 
drawn anno 1777. 





Part of 


^^f'^Tg > 


i, mM i tob j OxFomy 



IS an inland county, near the centre of South Britain, that under the ancient 
Britons belonged to their principality of the Coritani, and after the arrival of the 
Romans was included in their province of Flavia CaefarienSis. After their de- 
parture, it belonged (during the Saxon Heptarchy) to the kingdom of Mercia, 
the 7th, and laft eftabliShed, which commenced in 582, and ended in 827, hav- 
ing had 18 kings. Alfred, when he made the divisions of his kingdom, gave 
this county its prefent appellation, which then included what is now called Rut- 
landshire. It is now in the Midland Circuit ; the province of Canterbury, and 
diocefe of Peterborough ; bounded on the north by LeicefterShire and Rutlandshire ; 
fouth by Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire ; eaft by Huntingdonshire ; and 
weft by Warwickshire ; it contains an area of 683 Square miles, 550000 Square 
acres, being 51 miles long, 21 broad, and 125 in circumference, has 149000 inha- 
bitants, 24800 houfes, is divided into 20 hundreds, 330 parishes, 85 vicarages, and 
551 villages. It has one city, Peterborough, and 12 market towns, viz. Northampton 
the county town, Daventry, Brackley, Higham Ferrers, Rockingham, Welling- 
borough, Thrapfton, Oundle, Cliffe, "Kettering, Rothwell, and Towcefter. Its 
principal rivers are the Oufe, Nen,Welland, Cherwell, Learn, and Avon ; themoft 
noted places, Aubery Mounts, Rockingham and Saufey Forefts, Several Sine parks 


and feats, viz. Dunfmore Heath, Nafcby Field, &c. Its produd ; pafturesi corn, 
cattle, iheep and horfes. 

The Roman Saxon or Danifh encampments in this county are thofe at Aubury. 
Banks, at Daventry, Caerdyke near Peterborough, Caftor, Guilefborough, Chefter, 
near Wellingborough, Lylburn, Mill Cotton, Chipping Warden, Charlton, Caftle 
Dykes, and at Raynefbury near Aynhoe. 

There are two grand Roman roads which crofles this county, the one where it 
is broadeft, and the other where it is narroweft. The firft is allowed to be the 
Watling-ftreet ; but the Other partes without any appellation, notwithftanding it does 
not belong to the four 4 , viz. "Watling-ftreet, Ermin-ftreet, Ickenild ftreet, and Fofle- 
way, is yet too "confid.erable'to be called a vicinal way ; at the fame time it muft 
be obferved that theRomans themfelves gave no particular names, but in general they 
were called Military, Praetorian, Confular, and Bafillcall. This indeed, though 
namelefs, is of more than ordinary confequence, as it branches out into two 
feveral ones, and ferves the purpofe of thofe that go to Newark, and thofe that go 
to Sleaford, on which the fifth journey of Antoninus is performed. It is ad- 
mitted by all antiquarians that this road crofles the Nen towards Caftor, and 
Camden hath traced it from Upton the 40 foot Way to Stamford, the Long 
Ditch, or High-ftreet to Deeping. The wonderful Roman Caufeway mentioned 
by Dugdale, feems to have pointed to Chefterton, pafling direftly from Peter- 
borough, and falling into the High Dyke about Caftor, which caufeway was in- 
length 24 miles, and 60 feet broad, by which they had communication with the 
garrifons in Norfolk, Suffolk and Cambridgefhire ; and by the 40 foot Way with, 
thofe in Lincolnfhire and Nottinghamfnire, as well as thofe in Huntingdonfhire 
and Bedfordlhire ; and the South by the road from Chefterton. The other Roman; 
military way through this county is the Watling-ftreet, which pafles the Oufe 
from Buckinghamfhire, through Towcefter to Brough-Hill near Daventry, the 
Bennavenna of Antoninus. The military way from Bennavenna by High Crofs, 
between Warwickshire and Leicefterfhire, is certainly a vicinal way ; becaufe the 
courfe of the Watling-ftreet is elfewhere. 


Artleborough Church near Higham Fer- 
Barnewell caftle near Oundle 
Billing Priory near Northampton 
Brackley Chapel 
Braybrook Caftle near Rothwell 
Brington Church near Althorp 
Buckton Church 
Burleigh Houfe near Stamford 
Catterftock Church near Oundle 
Daventry Priory 
Drayton Houfe near Thrapfton 
Duffield Abbey near Whittlebury Foreft 
Exton Church near Northampton 
Finelhead Abbey near Cliff Regis 
Fortheringay Caftle, Church and College 

Geddington Chapel 

Higham Ferrers Church and College 

Holdenby Palace near Althorp 

Irthingborough Church 

King's Sutton Church near Aynhoe 

Luffwick Church near Thrapfton 

Northampton Church 

Oundle Church 

Peterborough Cathedral, &cc. 

Pipwell Abbey near Wilberfton 

Queen's Crofs near Northampton 

Rockingham Caftle 

St. Sepulchre's Church 

Stow-nine Churches near Daventry 

Sulby Abbey near Walford. 

{27 ) 



1 HIS venerable and picturefque ruin ftands in the hundred of 
Spelhoe, about three miles and a half north of the town of Nor- 
thampton j it is not mentioned either by Morton, who wrote the 
hiftory of the country, nor does it occur in any of the topogra- 
phical writers. E6ton, in his Thefaurus, amongft the livings 
remaining in charge in Northamptonfhire, thus defcribes it., 
" Boughton, alias Buckton, a rectory, the church dedicated to St. 
John the Baptift, in the deanery of Haddon, valued in the king's 
books at 20I. 9s. yd. the yearly tenths ujd. patron the earl of 

In this church-yard is the following Epitaph. 

Time was, I flood where thou dofl now, 
And view'd the dead, as thou doft me 
E'er long thou'lt lie as low as I, 
And others Hand an4 look on thee." 

Since the publication of the firft edition of this work, the fpire 
and tower of this church has fallen down. 

The following account of this church is given in the Hiftory 
of Northamptonmire, publifhed from the papers of the late 
Mr. Bridges. 

Boughton Church ftands upon the green, about half a mile 
diftant from the village. It is now in ruins, without a roof, the 
walls in feveral parts levelled with the ground. It confuted of a 
body, chancel and north chantry chapel -, when the chantry was 
founded or by whom is not known. 

The tower at the weft end fupports an octagon fpire. The 
church-yard is ftill ufed to bury in, but fervice is performed in a 
chapel in the town,, which by a date over the door appears to 



have been built anno 1599, and it is at that time we may probably 
date the ruin of the church. 

In this village is a (mail ancient feat, belonging to the earl of 

Strafford, who purchafed the manor of Lord Afhburnham, to 

whom it had been mortgaged by Sir John Brifcoe, Knt. Sir John 

became poffefTed of it in right of his wife, Anne, eldeft daughter 

of Nicholas, earl of Banbury, who fucceeded Nicholas Lord Vaux, 

in whofe family it had been ever fmce the reign of Henry VIII. 

in that of Edward III. it belonged to Sir Henry Greene, who 

obtained a fair, flill kept here for brooms and wooden ware, on 

the eve of the Nativity of St. John the Baptift, to whom the 

church is dedicated. At the making of Domefday, this manor 

belonged in part to the abbey of St. Wandragefill in Normandy, 

to which it had been given by Judith, countefs of Huntingdon, 

with leave of the conqueror her uncle. This drawing was made 

anno 1761. 


KJ F this remarkable church the following account is given in 
the Hiftory and Antiquities of Northampton, now publifhing 
From the papers of the late Mr. Bridges. 

" The church dedicated to the honour of the Holy Sepulchre 
ftands at the north end of the town, is of a circular form, and 
confifls of a body, north and fouth aiile, leaded ; in the middle is 
a cupola, covered alfo with lead, and fupported by eight pillars 
of the Tufcan order, each pillar ftanding at the diftance of eight 
feet from the other, and forming an angle with the pillars next 
adjoining. At the eaft end is a chancel, with a north and fouth 
aiile j to it you enter from the church by an afcent of three fteps. 
At the weft end is a round embattled tower, on which is raifed a 
pyramidal octagon fpire. In the tower are fix bells. The length 
of the church and chancel is ninety- feven feet, fix inches; the 
breadth of the chancel and aifles fifty-eight feet ; the diameter of 
the church and aifles is fifty-eight feet fix inches ; and the com- 
pafs ,of the circle of the eight pillars, meafured outwards^ one 



hundred and twelve feet eight inches ; the tower is fixteen feet 
fix inches long, and eleven feet fix inches broad : the fpire about 
one hundred and fixteen feet high. On the fouth fide is a porch 
covered with Hate. 

This church was probably built by the Knights Templars, after 
the model of that erected over the Holy Sepulchre at Jerufalem. 
The body only was firft built, the chancel and fleeple appearing 
to have been added afterwards. This church, with four acres of 
land of his demefnes, were given by Henry I. and confirmed by 
Richard, archbifhop of Canterbury, and Hugh Wells, bifhop of 
Lincoln, to the priory of St. Andrew's in this town, which ap- 
pears from Ingulphus, to have fubfifled as early as the end of the 
eleventh century (1076). 

The vicarage, was ordained in the time of Bifhop Wells afore*- 
faid, who filled the fee of Lincoln from 1209 to 1234. In 1254, 
38th of Henry III. the rectory was rated at four marks, but there 
is no mention of the vicarage. 

In 1535, 26th of Henry VIII. it was valued at 61. 12s. The 
vicarage, amounting to the clear yearly value only of 20I. 10s. lod. 
has been difcharged by the governors of Queen Anne's bounty from 
the payment of firft fruits and tenths. 

After the diffolution of religious houfes, the patronage ap- 
pears to have continued in the crown; but about 1640 belonged 
to Sir John Lambe, who fold it to Peter Whalley, Efq; from 
whom it came to his grandfon, Nathaniel Whalley, Clerk, who 
is the prefent patron. 

The great tithes, with thofe of St. Giles's, are now in the 

hands of Pilkington, as impropriator of both parifhes. 

It is in the deanery of Northampton." It is faid there are fome 
ancient and rude bafTo relievos in and about this church. If this 
is true, they are at. prefent covered over with plaifcer. 

Round churches, of which there are but a few in England, are 
fuppbfed by many to have been Jewifh Synagogues, efpecially when 
fituated in places called the Jewry. 

Vol. IV. H Fuller 


Fuller, in bis Hiftory of Cambridge, particularly afcribes this 
building to the Jews, who fettled at Northampton about the fame 
time as at Cambridge, where there is another round church flill 
remaining. This view, which exhibits the fouth afpect, was 
drawn anno 1761. 





,, ? . t.f.r 

Scale of Maes 



O C Er- 

A N\ 


C XJ Mi 

BE RJL A. 3vT D 



Sou t/z 


1 S a maritime county, the moft northern of England on the eaft coaft, 
which prior to the arrival of the Romans belonged to the principality of the Otta- 
dina ; and after their arrival'was included in their province of Maxima Casfarienfis, 
which reached from the Humber to the Tyne. During the Heptarchy it made part 
of the kingdom of the Northumbrians, the 5th eftablifhed, which began in 547, 
and ended in 827, having had 31 kings ; it afterwards was called Bernicia, and 
alternately claimed by the Englim and Scots. It is not named in Alfred's divifion, 
being then fubjeft to the Scots. It is in the Northern Circuit, in the diocefe of 
Durham and province of York. It is bounded on the north by Scotland j fouth 
by Durham ; eaft by the German Ocean ; and weft by Scotland and Cumberland ; 
is 66 miles long, 45 broad; and 150 miles in circumference; being divided into 
6 wards, containing 460 parilhes, 9 vicarages, 279 villages, 136,000 inhabitants, 
2274V houfes, 1 1 market-towns, viz. Alnewick, Belford, Berwick, Ellefdon, Halt- 
wefel, Hexham, Learmouth, Morpeth, Newcaftle, Rothbury and Wooller. It fends 
8 Members to Parliament, pays 4 parts of the Land-tax, and fupplies 560 men to the 
national Militia. Its principal rivers are the Tweed, Tyne, North and South Tyne, 
Alne, Wenlbeck, Coquet, Bramifh, Ufway, Blythe, Till, Eaft Alou, and Weft 
Alou. Its remarkable places are Sunderland Point, Cape Bothal, Holy, Fearn and 
Coquet Ifles, Staples Rocks, Black Middens, Clifford's Fort, Felton Bridge, 
Cheviot Hills, Flodden Hill, Stainmore Hills, Hexham and Lowes Forefts, Pi&s 



Wall; with the Havens ofTweedmoutb, Alnemouth, Tynemouth, and Wenibeck- 
mouth. It produces great quantities of coals, wrought iron, lead, game, falmon, 
fait, allum, and cattle. 

The Roman, Danifh and Saxon encampments, in this county are numerous, 
amongft whom are thofe at Glower, near Belford, near Doddington, near Fenton, 
near Wooller, near ICirk. Newton, at Frickley, upon Hadden and Downham Hills, 
near Branxton, upon Long Know and Ring Cairn near Kirk. Newton, near Bel- 
tingham, near Eaft Wooburn, three near Elefdon, two near Brokenmofs, Green 
Law, Burgh Law, near Ingram, and at Rothbury, near Simonburn, Little and 
Great Chefters, near Haltwhiftle ; Houfefteds near Little Chefters, near Kirkhaugh, 
near Newbrough, near Humfhaugh, near Allondale, Camp-hi^L Folly near Little 
Swinbourn, three near Corbridge, two nearHaddon on the Wall, two near Whal- 
ton, and two near Newcaftle. 

The Roman road from Durham through Ebchefter that enters this county, lead- 
ing over the united Tyne at Corbridge dire£lly to Scotland, is the Watlingftreet. 
It palfes on the eaft fide of North Tyne, by Rifingham and Ribchefter to the bor- 
ders of Scotland; from this avicinal waybranchesofftoGreenchefter,theVindamora 
of the Romans. Gemblefpeth, the Roman Corftopitum is on the road 9 miles from 
Greenchefter, which proceeds thence to Bramenium of the Romans in Scotland, 
now not known. Solway Frith is fuppofed to be the Blatum Bulgium of the Ro- 
mans, and Boulnefs to have been a ftation, from whence to Elenborough was a 
military way. Brovoniacis is the prefent Carlifle, from thence to Caer Vorran it is 
13 miles, thence to Luguvallium 14 miles. Tinemouth was the Blatum Bulgium 
agreeable to fome. The next Roman road in this county is by the Maiden Way, 
through Weftmorland, Lancashire, and Chefhire to Staffordfhire. 

A N T I QJJ I T I E S in this 

Alnemouth Church 

Akeld Ruins near Wooller 

Alnwick Caftle and Abbey 

Aydon Caftle near Corbridge 

Bamburgh Caftle near Swinbourn 

Bavington Caftle near Little Swinbourn 

Bel fay Caftle 

Bellifter Caftle near Haltwhiftle 

B) well Caftle upon the Tyne 

Bothal Caftle, Church, and Chapel 

Blackfriars Houfe at Newcaftle 

Blanchland Priory, near Hexham, 

Blenkenfop Caftle near Haltwhiftle 

Brinkbourn Priory near Rothbury 

Chillingham Caftle and Church 

Capheaton Caftle near Bclfay 

Cockle Park Tower 

Coldmartin Ruins near Wooller 

Crawley Tower near Glanton 

Cuthbert's (St.) Oratory on Cocquet Ifland 

Dale Caftle near Behingham 

Dilfton Caftle near Hexham 

Druidical Temple near Ilderton 

Dunftanburgh ^'aftle near Embleton 

Errington Caftle near Chollcrton 

Hanging Stone near Cheviot Hill 
Hermitage near Wark worth 

Hexham Monaftery and Church 
Holy Ifland Caftle and Monaftery 
Horton Caftle near Wooller 
Houghton Caftle near Simonbourn 
Hulne Abbey near Alnwick 
Hurft Caftle nenr Woodhorn 
Langlcy Caftle near Ilaydonbridge 
Lemmgton Tower near Alnwick 
Lowes in Rccdfdalc 
Malcolmb's Crofs nenr Alnwick 
Mitford Caftle near Morpeth 
ke Stone near Tynemouth 


Morpeth Caftle gate 

Newcaftle Caftle, &c. 

Newton Tor near Kirk Newton 

Norham Church and Caftle 

Ogleburgh near Chatten 

Our Lady's Chapel near Bothal 

Peel in Ruins near Behingham 

Prudhoe Caftle 

Ruins at Elwick near Belford 

- - - near Fenton 
----- Kirk Newton 
.... - Behingham 
----- Eaft Woburn 

- - - - - Falftone 

- - - - - Allenton 

- - ... Harbattle 


----- Chattel hope 

- . . . . Embleton 
----- Ellingham 

- ... . of Little Royal, Whittingham 
----- Alnham 

- .... Mcmcrkirk near Allenton 


----- Warkworth 



. . . . . Stamfordham 
Simonfburn Caftle 
Spylaw Tower near Alnwick 
Swinbourn Caftle 
Temple near Doddington 
Tynemouth Monaftery and Caftle 
Tiiurlwell Caftle near Haltwhiftle 
Turrell Caftle and Bridge 
Warkworth Caftle 

White Chapel Ruins near Behingham 
Widringron Caftle ' 

Williamfwick Ruins near Bcltingham 

( 3i ) 



AlNEMOUTH Church ftands within the parifh of Work- 
worth, about two miles and a half diftant from that town. It is 
fituated on a mount or hill near the fouth bank of the river Alne, 
which divides it from the village of Alnemouth, whence it derives 
its name. The fea which wafhes the eafl fide of this hill has 
frequently, by encroaching on the foil, thrown up bones of an 
enormous fize, thefe being found fo near a church-yard, has made 
the credulous vulgar fuppofe they were the bones of giants, flain 
in an invafion and buried here. When moft probably they were 
only the bones of horfes killed near the fpot in fome of the 
many fkirmifhes and battles that fo long and fo often difturbed 
this coaft. 

Neither the founder of this church nor the time of its erec- 
tion are known. As parochial churches were moftly built either 
by the lord of the manor or private contributions of pious per- 
fons, their origin is in general difficult to ascertain, fcarce any 
records or memorandums of them being preferved in any public 
muniments, except that fometimes the date of their confecration 
is entered in the Bifhop's Regifter. 

The fame obfcurity occurs refpecting this church as to the 
time of its being thus ruined; which perhaps was not effected 
by any violent means, but firnply by the gradual fappings of time 
and want of proper repairs. Divine fervice has not been per- 
formed in it for many years, owing to its ruinous Hate, the 
church yard is however ftill ufed for burials. The inhabitants 
of the village go to the neighbouring church of Lifbury. 



The ftile of this building pronounces it of great antiquity,' and 
from its ruins it may be feen it was in the form of a crofs. This 
view was drawn anno 1775. 


1 HIS was, according to Tanner, an abbey of Premonftratenfian 
Canons, founded anno 1147, by Euftace Fitz John, who, by his 
marriage with Beatrice the daughter of Ivo de Vefcy, became 
lord of the baronies of Alnwyke and Malton . It was dedi- 
cated to the Bleffed Virgin. Dugdale ftiles it only a priory. 

Eustace, its founder, for the good of his foul and remifTion 
of his fins; alfo for the benefit of the fouls of his father and 
mother, for the foul of Ivo de Vefcy, and thofe of all his prede- 
ceffors ; and for the foul of William de Vefcy his fon, and all his 
other children, endowed it with a great parcel of his baronial 
lands, and gave to it the village of Huicliff, and all the demefnes 
about it, on the left hand of the road from Alnewick to Rock, and 
the waftes belonging to it, extending from Hindon to the river 
Alne, with the fervice of half the tenants. He moreover bellowed 
on it two parts of the tithes of the lordfhip of Tughall, of Aln- 
ham, of Newham, of Heyfend, of Chatton, and one moiety of the 
tithes of Wooler, of Long Houghton, and of Lefbury : he alfo 
annexed to it the priory and church of Gufnes, now called Gyfon 
or Guyzance, near Felton, dedicated to St. Wilfrid, and founded 
by Richard Tyfon, to hold in pure alms, with all its privileges 
and endowments, a moiety of the tithes, and two bo vats of land 
at Gyfon, the church of Halge or Hauegh, the lands of Ridley 
and Morewickhough, with the liberty of erecting a corn mill on 
the river Coquet, and of railing as much corn on his waftes there 
as they could plough, with liberty to grind it at his own mill, 
moulter free. He alfo gave the canons, for their table, the tenth 
part of all the venifon and pork killed in his parks and foreirs, 
and of all the fifh taken in his nfheries by his order, and a falt- 
work at Warkworth. 



The Lord William cte Vefcy, his fon, gave them the advowfons 
of Chatton, Chillingham, Alnharri; they had alfo the advowfons 
and appropriations of St. Dunftan's, in Fleet Street, London, and 
of Sikenfield, in Yorkfhire. 

They had twenty-four acres of turbary, or earth for fuel, 
and liberty of pafturage on Edlingham Common : they had lands 
at Chatton and at Falloden j alfo four tenements and a garden in 
Newcaftle upon Tyne. 

These grants were all confirmed by Henry de Percy, fifth lord 
of Alnwick; and again, by one of his defcendants Henry Percy, 
earl of Northumberland, lord of the honor of Cockermouth and 
Petworth ; Lord Percy, Lucy, Poinings, Fitz Poyne, and Bray- 
anem ; warden general of the eaft and midland marches of 
England next Scotland, and knight of the moft noble order of 
the garter. 

In the Chronicle of this houfe, preferved in the library of 
King's College, Cambridge, there is an account of a banquet given 
by Walter de Hepefcotes the abbot, anno 1376, on the day of the 
AfTumption of the BlefTed Virgin Mary, to Henry the fourth lord 
of Alnwyck, with the thirteen following knights ; William de 
Aeon, Richard Tempeft, Walter Blount, Alan de Heton, John 
Coniers, John Heron, John Lilleburum, Thomas de Ilderton, 
Thomas de Boynton, Ingram de Umfravil, John de Dichaunt, 
John de Swynton, Radulphus de Viners, and many others of the 
chief gentry of the country, amounting to one hundred and 
twenty, all entertained in the refectory: befides eighty-fix at a 
fecond repaft. The cloifters, too, were filled with the inferior 
fort of people of all ages, to the number of one thoufand and 
twenty, who were likewife there feafted. 

It appears from the fame authority that diverfe of the Percys 
were here interred ; particularly Henry the fecond lord of Aln- 
wyck, who died anno 135 1 ; Henry the third lord, who beftowed 
on the monks here iool. at his death, anno 1368, befides many 
other benefactions. Alfo Mary his wife, daughter of the earl of 

Vol. IV. 1 Henry 


Henry the fourth lord of Alnwyck, anno 1372, 2d Kalend of 
February, was admitted to the brotherhood of this chapter, toge- 
ther with diverfe other knights and efquires ; as was alfo in the 
fucceeding year Henry his eldeft fon, with his two brothers, 
Thomas and Radulphus. 

During the abbacy of Walter de Hepefcotes this houfe was 
afflicted with a great fcarcity of the fruits of the earth, together 
with a peftilence, whereby all the cattle belonging to the monas- 
tery were deftroyed. In this Chronicle, the following abbots are 
mentioned: John, who died anno 1350 ? Walter, who refigned 
his office anno 1362, and was fucceeded by Robert, and Walter 
de Hepefcotes, abbot, anno 1376. 

The abbot of this houfe was fummoned to parliament, 23d, 
24th, 28th, 3 2d, and 34th, of King Edward I. alfo to that held at 
Carlifle, 35th of the fame reign, and to the parliament of King 
Edward II. 

At the diffolution 26th of Henry VIII. the annual revenues of 
this abbey were eftimated at 189I. 15s. Dugdale : 194I. 7s. Speed. 
It had then thirteen canons. The fite of it was granted 4th of 
King Edward VI. to Ralph Sadler and Lawrence Winnin^ton. 
It was afterwards fold, with the demefnes about it, to Sir Francis 
Brandling, Knt. of whofe family it was purchafed, with the fame 
lands, -by Mr. Doubleday, father of Thomas Doubleday/ Efq; the 
prefent proprietor, whofe feat is built out of the ruins which 
flood in his orchard, fouth of his pleafure garden. " The only 
remains (fays Mr. Wallis, in his Hiftory of Northumberland.) of 
this religious pile is the court wall to the eaft, through which is 
the entrance, of very curious architecture, with a modern turret 
at the fouth end, beyond which is a building feemingly of a later- ■* 
erection, not correfponding with the grandeur of monaftic ftruc- 
tures, anfwering better the ufe it is now put to, viz. a (table, than 
any other. Adjoining to it is an ancient and ftrong tower with 
four turrets, two at each end. 

The fituation of the abbey is extremely pleafant, at a fmall 
diitance from the caftle, in a view from the church, and under a 



hill, on the extreme point of ,a peninfula, by the eaftern margin 
of the river Alne, croffed by a bridge of two arches, whofe 
winding trout-ftream, in pleafant murmurs, glides pad it, fhaded, 
on the oppofite fide with a bank of wood, and here and 
there a broken rock vifible through it, variegated with ivy and 

The tower here fpoken of by Mr. Wallis, was the ancient 
gate-houfe of the monaftery, the ftrong latticed gate of which is 
frill remaining. The grand entrance fronted the north 5 over it 
was a canopy and niche for the Virgin Mary. The whole tower 
feems to have been much decorated with elegant carving, and has 
feveral efcutcheons of the quarterings borne by the noble family 
of the Percys ; fome of whom, befides confirming the grant of 
the founder and his fon, added benefactions of their own. In- 
deed, from the confpicuous manner in which their arms are 
placed on this gate, it feems as if it was of their conftruclion. 

In the tower a gate opened to the eaft, on each fide of which 
are figures of angels fupporting armorial fhields. On this front 
was alfo a canopy, and niche for a flatue j and over the entrance 
here, as alfo on the north fide, were machicolations. 

The following lift of abbots is given by Brown Willis: 
<c Thomas Alnewyke occurs abbot, anno 1432 and 1437 s as does 
Patrick Gall, anno 1491, in Henry the Seventh's time, when here 
were accounted twenty-two religious in this convent. William 
Harrifon was lafc abbot, he furrendered this convent 22d Decem- 
ber, 1540, 31ft Henry VIII. and had a pennon of 50I. per annum, 
which he enjoyed anno 1553 ; in which year there remained in 
charge 12I. 6s. 8d. in annuities, and thefe following penfions : to 
Robert Forfter, 5I. 6s. 8d. Roger Spence, 5I. — Richard Miller 61. 
- — James Samfonne, 5I. — John Plochinfonne, 5I. — Robert Baker 5I. 
William Hudfonne, 5I. — William Saunderfonne, il. — Richard 
Alkeley, il. — and to Richard Wheteley, il." This view, which 
reprefents the eaftern afpecl: of the gate-houfe of the monaftery, 
and the gates of Mr. Doubleday's Houfe, was drawn anno 1773. 




A description of Alnwick Caftle, taken from an ancient fur- 
vey of divers of the pofTeflions of the Right Honourable the Earl 
of Northumberland, made about the year 1567 by George 
Clarkefon, furveyor of all his lordlhip's lands, and other the 
faid earl's officers, remaining among the evidence of their 
Graces the Duke and Duchefs of Northumberland, at the faid 
caftle in 1775: marked in the catalogue of the faid evidences- 
(A. Divinon I. No. 1.) 

J. HE caftell of Alnewike ys a verye ancyent large beutifull & 
portlie caftle fcytewate on y e fouthe fide of y e ryver Alne upon a 
lytle mote. The circuite therof by eftimacon about the walles 
cclxxvj yeards j conteyninge in yt felf v xx 'xiiij (5 fcore & 14} 
Roodes. In y e w ch ys thre principall wards. And in the utter 
warde, where ys the entry from the towne, ys a faire gate houfe 
coverid w th lead, w th ij paire of wood gates, and on either fyde ys 
a porter's lodge w th ij houfe height about j w ch ys now rewynoofe * 
& in decaye by reafone the flores of the upper houfe ys decayed, 
as well in dormounts and joafts as in boordes and very neceffarie 
to be repayred. Without w ch gaits ther ys a very faire turnepike 
dooble battelled aboute, w th a pare of woodegats in the uttermofte 
p te therof. Betwene w ch turnepike and the greate gats, yt feamythe 
theer hathe bene a drawe bridge, but yt ys nowe filled uppe & 
paved. From y e faid gathoufe towards y e northe ys a curtane 
wall of lenth vij roods dim. (feven & a half) & betwene yt & a 
towre ftandinge on y e northe weft corner, called the Abbots 
Towre. And in the faid courten wall on the inner parte ys a 
turret covered w th free ftone, w ch ys upon y e wall twoo houfes 
hight. The faid towre, called y e Abbotts Towre, ys of thre houfe 
fright : y c weft houfe is the arrnorie. From the abbots towre to- 

* i. e. Ruinous. 



'^iyv'l ;;r' 








wards the eafte ys an other curtaine wall joynige unto the wall of 
y e dungeon, confeyinge in lenthe xxxij° roods : and in y e fame as 
in y e middle, betwixt yt & y e dungeon, ys twoo lytle garrets. 
From the eafte mofte garrett havinge a chamber, to the dungeon ; 
y e laid wall bathe no battelment to walke upon. On y e other parte 
of the gate houfe towarde y e fouthe ys a curtaine wall of lengthe 
fortie twoo yeards to a towre called y e corner tower. In y e middle 
betwen y e gatehoufe and the faid corner towre ys one garrett in 
the wall ; in the upper parte wherof ys a lytle chamber ; the nea- 
tlier parte fervinge for a buttrefle to y e wall. 

Betwene the faid corner towre & the midle gatehoufe, turn- 
Inge eafte, ys a curtaine wall of length Ixx yeardes, in the which 
ys one towre raifed of viij th yeards fquare, of three houfes height, 
called th' Auditors Towre. The under houfe ys a ftable, & th' 
other houfes two fare chambers covered with leade and in good 

Within the faid utter curten ys one houfe, of two houfe 
height, ftandinge on the lefte hande at the partinge of y e gate, 
called y e Checker Houfe, the under houfes fervinge for lodgings, 
the upper houfe for a Courte Houfe j covered w th flate and in 
good reparacions. And in y e fame courte on th' other hande of 
the gate, ftandinge northe and fouthe, ys a nother houfe for a 
ftable of twoo houfe heighte ; th' under parte * onelie fervith for 
ftables ; y e over parte therof ys to be loftede and ferve for keapinge 
of graine nowe newlie builded. Another like houfe, a ftable, 
ftandeth on the right hande betwen y e gaits eafte and wefte, co- 
verid of late w th ilaits, and in good reparacions. 

The gate houfe towre for the mydle gate, ys a Towre of thre 
houfe height & in fome parte iiij houfe height, on the lefte hande 
one ftrong prifone 6c on the right a porter lodge. All the houfes 
above are lpdgings - 3 wherin ys conteyned hall, ketchinge, buttrie, 
pantery and lodginge for a conftable or other gentlemen to keipe 
houfe in. From the fame towre eft goithe a corteyne wall to the 

• Th' other parte MS, 

Vol. IV. K corner 



corner tovvre on the fouthe eaft parte, of leinght v xx ' xvij (five 
fcore & feventeen) yeardes j in the which ys rayfed one towre at 

th' ende of y e gardnors of thre houfe height, and of lenght 

yeardes fquare. Wherein ys on the grounde a ftable, the mydle 
houfe for haye,. the overmofte a chamber ; & betwixt y e fame, w ch 
ys covered w th leade, and the faid corner towre ys rayfed twoo lytle 
garretts in y e wall : the nether parts fervethe for butteryfs to the 
walle, th' other parts fervithe onelie for privies, and are coveryd 
with (tone. The faid corner towre ys on thre parte rounde, th' 
inner parte fquare without wall, conteyninge in the rounde therof 
xvij th (17) yeardes. The fame towre ys rayfed no heigher then 
the battlement of the wall, and ys of twoo houfe height all to 
gyther in haine, and fervithe for a parte of y e curtinge wall. 

Betwene the fame rounde towre, turning towards y e northc 
weft to a towre called the Ravine Towre, ys a curtinge wall of 
xiiij th (14) yeardes of lengthe : y e fame towre ys coviryd w th leade, 
in good reparacions , the towre yt felfe ys fo rente y t yt ys mooche 
like to fall : y t ys alfo of thre houfe height ; the nether fervith 
for a ftable, the midle for a chamber, and in decay w th out lofte, 
the overmofte a chamber well repayred. This towre ys in thre 
p ts rounde, the iiij th parte fquare, conteyninge in the holle xxvj tIv 
(26) yeardes. 

Betwene the faid towre and a towre called the Counftables 
Towre, ys a cortinge wall of xxx th (30) yerdes of lenght. The 
faid counftables towre, ys thre partes rounde, the fourth fquare, 
containinge xxxvi th (36) yeardes ; & ys of thre houfe heighte ; 
the nether parte fervithe for a buttrie ; the other ij° parts fervithe 
for two faire lodgingc j and yt ys covered with lead, w ch wold 
partly be helped; in all other things yt ys \r\ good reparacions. 

Betwene the faid towre and the Poftrene Towre, ys a curteine 
wall cont s ' xxiii th (23) yeards in lenght; and the fame Poftrene 
Towre ys rayfed, of xxxvj th (36) yeardes fquare, and ys of thre 
houfe height : the nether parte fervethe for a throughe paflinge 
ofy e pofterne; th' other for twoo fare chambers. The fame ys 
nowe coverid w th leade fence my L. entred,'and ys in good repa- 


acioris. And in y e northe weft coarner of the faid towre ys rayfed 
a garrett above y e battellment therof, and right over the gate of 
the faid pofterne. And from the faid towre to the dungeon 
ther is afingle curtinge wall without battellment of lenghte 

Within the faid inner courtine, betwixt the faid towre of the 
mydle gate and the faid lytle four fquared towre towards th' 
eafte, ys raifed one houfe upon the courteine wall, of thre houfe 
height, well coveryd w th leade; and ys of lenght xxv th (25) 
yeardes : parte therof now fervethe for ij° (2) ftables for my lords 
horfes : th' over parte for ij° gardners. The fame houfe in all 
things ys in good reparacions. 

At th' eafte ende of the faid gardner ys builded one lytle houfe 
of thre cooples and one gavill of ftone, and joyned upon the faid 
lytle fquare towre & ys covered with flate, which neadithe nothinge 
but pointinge, w th in y e w ch is one horfe-milne nowe in decaye, and 
fervith for nothinge. 

And a lytell from the faid houfe ys ther a nother houfe of twoo 
houfe height, and ys of iiij th (4) coople of timber, w th twoo ftone 
gavills, covered w th flate, and newly pointed ; w ch fervithe onelie 
for keapinge of haye. Towards th' eafte, joyninge to the faid 
houfe ys ther a lytle gardine, on th' one fyde ys inclofed w th the 
faid cortinge wall ; and th' others of a wall made of ftone ; con- 
taining in lenght xij th (12) yeardes. And this gardinge ys kept 
by Raphe Graye, who hathe y e fee of xx s by yeare for the fame, 
befides y e profett therof. So that the lorde ys here charged w th 
more then neadethe j for the profett therof wolde be fufficyent 
for his paynes. And from the northe eafte corner of the faid 
gardinge, right over toy 6 faid ruinous towre, in auncyent time 
hath ben faire & tryme lodgings, where nowe be nothinge; the 
ftones therof taken away, and put to other ufes in the caftell ; the 
place now voide wolde be a tryme gardinge ; yt joyneth upon the 
faid Rovine Towre. In the fouth eafte p te of the faid cortinge 
wall, w th fmall charges, wolde be made a faire bankettinge houfe 
w th a faire gallorie, going from the fame towards the northe to the 
faid Rovine Towre. 



Ther ys neighe y e faid curtinge wall, w ch ys betwixt y e faid 
Conftables Towre and Rovine Towre, ys builded one faire chapell 
of vij th (7) yeardes height of the wall, in leinght xix th (19) yeardes, 
and vij th (7) yeardes of bredthe, covered w th flate; the windooes 
well glazed, in all things well repaired, (the fylong * thereof only 
excepted). Betwixt y e faid chappell and the faid corteyne wall, 
ys builded one lytle houfe of twoo houfe height, of lenght viij th 
(8) yeardsj the neather parte therof called the reveftry; th' over 
parte therof a chamber w th a ftone chimley, wherein y c lorde and 
ladie, w rh ther children, commonly ufed to heare the fervice : the 
fameys coverid w th flate; y e lofte therof wolde be repayred. 

And before the faid chappell dore ys one conducte fett w th ftone 
& a chifte of lead : w ch chifte ys three yeards of length, and xviii th 
(18) inches brod : y e cefterne therof covered w th leade : wherunto 
comethe a goodiye courfe of trime and fwite water from one well 
called Howlinge Well in pipes of leade. The fame well covered w th 
a houfe made of ftone. And the water of the faid eonducte ryn- 
nethe in pipes of leade to the brewe houfe onely, and cannot be 
brought to have courfe to any other houfes of office, but fuch as 
are builded, and to be builded w th out the dungeon. 

And betwixt the faid Conftables Towre and Poftern Towre, 
ftandith one faire brewhoufe well covered w th flate, and ys in 
lenght xx tie (20) yeardes, in bredthe ix en (9) yeardes : wherin ther 
ys a copper fett in a fornace ekid w th a crybe of clapbord w eh will 
holde lyckor for the brewinge of xxiv th (24) bolles of make : and 
in the fame brewhoufe ther is all manner of veffells to ferve for 
brewinge of the faid quantyte of malte newly made and repayred. 
Ther wolde be one appointed to keape y e faid crybe copper in the 
fornace. All the f d veffells for brewinge, with pippes and hodge- 
fheads perteyninge to the fame, fweite ; and the theight. . . . 

And joyninge upon the faid Pofterne Towre ftandethe the 
bake houfe fouthe and northe; being of lenght xv th (15) yeardes j 
in breadthe viii th (8) yeardes; well covered w th fclate. In the 

* 1. e. Cieling. 



riorthe ende therof thcr be twoo ovens ; and in the fouthe ende 
one boultinge houfe well colleryd * w th vvainfcote, the wyndowe 
therof glayfmed, and wolde be repaired. And joyninge to y e 
fouthe ende of the faid bake houfe ys builded twoo houfes covered 
w th flate, and o£ two houfe height ; y e neather parte fervethe for 
a {laughter houfe, and a flore houfe; th' over parte of th' one for 
hayehoufe, th' other for chambers for the launderqrs ; and are in 
lenerht foote. 

And joyninge upon the weft fide of the faid twoo houfes ys the 
fcyte of y e chaunterie houfe ; and the faid flore houfe and eh& 
bers above yt did ferve y e prefts for [their] cellers and chambei ; 
and now nothinge lefte but one [fingle] wall goinge from the 
faid flore houfe to th' entrie of the .... fide of the dungeon gate; 
w ch ys in lenght xxxiii th (33) yeardes. And the grounde betwene 
y e wall, houfes and dongeone ys ufed for a woode garthe. And 
from the wefte fide of the faid entrie to the towre called y e midle 
warde, ys another fmall parcel of grounde inclofed for a wode 
garthe w th a lytle ftone wall of xvj (16) yerds of lenght. And 
from the faid towre, called y e midle warde, ys a fingle curteyne 
wall joyned to the faid dungeon of xxi tie (21) yeardes in lenght. 

The dungeon ys fett of a lytle moate made w th men's handes, 
and for the mofte parte, as yt were fquare. The circuite thereof, 
meafured by the brattifhing, containeth ccxxv th (225) yeardes. It 
ys of a fare and pathe -f buildinge w th vij en (7) rounde towres, 
iiij th (4) garretts. Betwixt the fame garretts and towres, lodgings ; 
befides the gate houfe, w ch ys two towres of four houfe height, ys 
of ftatelie buildinge ; and th' other towres be all of thre houfe 
height and well covered w th leade, as ys lykewife the faid gatehoufe 
and other lodgings. Rounde about the fame dungeon upon the 
faid leade, ys a tryme walk and a faire profpe6te, and in fixe parts 
therof ys paffadges and entries to y e fame leads. In y e w ch dungeon 
ys hall, chambers and all other manner of houfes of offices for y e 
lorde & his traine. The fouth fyde therof fervethe for the lordes 

* Perhaps "covered." f Perhaps, " prattle buildinge." 

Vol, IV. L and 


and ladies lodgings j and underneighe * them the prifone, porter 
lodge and wyne celler, w th y e fkollerie. On the weft fide for 
chambres and wardrope. The northe fide chambers and lodgings. 
Th' eaft fide the halle, ketchinge, chambers, pantrye. Under- 
neithe y e fame hall a marveyloufe fare vaulte, w ch ys the butterye, 
in lenght xvij (17) yeards, in breadthe vj th (6) yeardes. And 
underneighe the fame ketchinge a lardnor, and at th' ende of the 
faid butterie, a draw-well of long time not occupied. Within 
the fame dungeone ys a proper lytle coortinge for the mofte parte 
fquare, and well paved with ftone. All the chambers and houfes 
of office within the faid dungeone in good reparacions, and hathe 
in the fame th' impleyments, bords, and bedftedes perteyninge 
therunto, as appearethe by indenture. Ther ys rayfed on the 
wefte fide of the faid dungeon one lytle fquare towre, called the 
watche towre, above y e leades xiiij th (14) yeardes: wherin is 
placed for a watchemane to ley 5 and a beaken to be fett or hinge. 
For that the northe parte of the dungeon ys the owtemofte parte 
of the caftell on that fide, yt wolde be good the fingle courteyne 
wall, w ch ys builded from the dungeone wefteward to the eafte- 
mofte garrett of the dobble cortinge wall, were taken downe ; and 
a double courtinge wall made by the grounde of the moate of the 
faid dungeone from the faid garrett right over to the corner of 
the faid pofterne towre. The fame fhoulde then be a ftrenght for 
that parte of the faid caftell, and ferve for divers other good pur- 
pofes : the length wherof ys lxx th (70) yeardes. 

And becaufe throwe extreme winds the glaffe of the windows 
of this and other my lord's caftells and houfes here in this cuntrie 
doothe decaye and wafte, yt were goode the whole leights of evrie 
windowe at the departure of his l p * from lyinge at anye of his 
faid caftells and houfes, and dowring the tyme of his l ps ' abfence 
or others lying in them, were taken doune and lade upe in fafetie; 
and at fooche tyme, as other his l p " or anie other fholde lye at anie 
of the faid places, the fame might then be fett uppe of newe, w th 

i. e. Underneath.. 



fmale charges to his l p ' wher now the decaye therof fhall be verie 
coftlie and chargeable to be repayred." 

For the tranfcript of the foregoing very curious defcription of 
Alnwick Caftle in its ancient ftate (given me by the moft obliging 
permiflion of the duke and dutchefs of Northumberland,) I am 
indebted to Thomas Butler, Efq; F. S. A. principal agent to their 
graces, and clerk of the peace for the county of Middlefex. This 
viewj which fhews the flrft court, or entrance into the caftle was 
drawn anno 1772. 

( PLATE II. ) 

- Alnwick Castle, one of the principal feats of the great 
family of Percy, earls of Northumberland, is fituated on the fouth 
fide of the river Alne, on an elevation that gives great dignity to 
its appearance, and in ancient times rendered it a moft impregnable 
fortrefs. It is believed to have been founded in the time of the 
Romans, although no part of the original ftriicture is now re- 
maining. But when part of the dungeon or caftle keep was taken 
down to be repaired fome years ago, under the prefent walls were 
difcovered the foundation of other buildings, which lay in a dif- 
ferent direction from the prefent, and fome of the ftones appeared 
to have Roman mouldings. 

The dungeon or keep of the prefent caftle, is believed to have 
been founded in the Saxon times. The zig zag fretwork round 
the arch that leads into the inner court, is evidently of Saxon 
architecture ; and yet this was probably not the moft ancient en- 
trance ; for under the flag tower (before that part was taken down 
and rebuilt by the prefent duke) was the appearance of a gate- 
way that had been walled up, directly fronting the prefent outward 
gate into the town. 

This caftle appears to have been a place of great ftrength im- 
mediately after the Norman conqueft : for in the reign of King Wil- 
liam Rufus, it underwent a remarkable fiege from Malcolm III. 
King of Scotland, who loft his life before it, as did alfo Prince 



Edward his eldeft fon. The mod authentic account of this event 
fecms to be that given in the ancient Chronicle of Alnwick Abbey ; 
of which a copy is preferved in the Britifh Mufeum*. This 
informs us that the caftle, although too ftrong to be taken by 
affault, being cut off from all hopes of fuccour, was on the point 
of furrendering, when one of the garrifon undertook its refcue by 
the following ftratagem : he rode forth compleatly armed, with 
the keys of the caftie tied to the end of his fpear, and prefented 
himfelf in a fuppljant manner before the king's, pavilion, as being- 
come to furrender up the poffefiion. Malcolm too haftily came 
forth to receive him, and fuddenly received a mortal wound. The 
affailant efcaped by the fleetnefs of his horfe through the river, 
which was then fwoln with rains. The Chronicle adds that his 
name was Hammond -j-, and that the place of his paflage was long 
after him named Hammond's Ford, probably where the bridge 
was afterwards built. Prince Edward, Malcolm's eldeft fon, too 
incautioufly advancing to revenge his father, received a mortal 
wound, of which he died three days after. The fpot where Mal- 
colm was flain was diftinguifhed by a crofs, which has lately been 
reftored by the prefent duchefs, who is immediately defcended from 
this unfortunate king, by his daughter Queen Maud, wife of 
King Henry I. of England ; whofe lineal defcendants were, firft, 
the Lady Mary Plantagenet, (daughter of Henry earl of Lancafter,. 
grandfon of King Henry III.) married to Henry Percy the third 
lord of Alnwick j fecond, the Lady Elizabeth Mortimer (grand- 
daughter of Lionel duke of Clarence, fon of King Edward III.) 
wife of Hotfpur j and third, the Lady Eleanor Neville (grand- 

• Harl. MSS. No. 6 9 z, (12.) fo. 155. 

f Nothing can be more futile and erroneous, than ike ftory toldby Boetius, and copied by other 
Scottifh writers, that this foldicr received the name of Piercy from piercing the king's eye with his 
fpear, and was anceftor of the Percies, earls of Northumberland ; whereas William de Percy, tfre 
anceftor of this family, had come over with the conqueror, and had founded Whitby Abbey, in York- 
shire, before the death of King Malcolm, as appears by the charter of foundation, which bears his 
name, and is printed in Dugdale's Monafticon, vol. i. p. 72. Indeed he received his name from his 
domain of Percy in Lower Normandy, near St. Lo ; nor had his defcendants any conneftioa with 
Northumberland, till the teign of King Edward I. as will be feen below. 



daughter of John of Gaunt) wife" of the fecond earl of Nor*. 

In the following century, another king of Scotland was taken 
prifoner befieging this caftle. This was William III. commonly 
called the lion j who having formed a blockade for fome days, was 
furprized by a party of Englifh, that had marched in the night to 
its relief, and coming fuddenly on the king as he was reconnoit- 
ring the works at fome diftance from his camp, took him prifoner 
early in the morning of July 12, 1174. The captive monarch 
was fent nrft to Richmond, and afterwards into Normandy to 
King Henry II. A tradition has been preferved that the king 
was taken not more than a bow-fhot from the caftle, at a place 
formerly called Rotten Row, not far from the entrance on the 
ride into Huln Park. 

To give complete annals of all the events that happened at, or 
near this caftle, would conftitute too large a part of the border 
hiftory j and therefore it will be fufficient only to mention, at pre- 
fent, a remarkable retreat that was made from this caftle, at the 
conclufion of the civil wars of York and Lancafter. 

Margaret of Anjou had introduced into this caftle a garrifon 
of three hundred Frenchmen. After the decifive battle of Tow- 
ton, when the victorious Yo'rkifts proceeded to take poffefiion of 
all the caftles in the North j Margaret, who was anxious to pre- 
ferve this garrifon, applied to George Douglas, earl of Angus, 
who very gallantly undertook to bring them away. He accord- 
ingly advanced with ten thoufand horfemen ; and making fhow, 
as if he meant to charge the Englifh army, which had inverted the 
caftle, while the latter formed themfelves in line of battle, he 
brought up a party of his ftouteft horfes to the poftern gate, to 
whom the garrifon made a fally, and every foldier mounting be- 
hind a trooper, (or as others fay, on a number of fpare horfes 
brought purpofely for them) the whole were fecurely conveyed 
into Scotland; the earl of Warwick, who commanded the Englifh, 
being well fatisfied to take pofleffion of the deferted caftle without 
bloodfhed. It is believed that the garrifon before they retired, had 

Vol, IV. M ' endeavoured 


endeavoured to deftroy all the arms and ammunition which 'they 
could not carry off. Accordingly a few years ago, on opening 
the principal well in the inner ward, which had been long filled 
up, the workmen found in it a great number of cannon balls, of 
a very large fize, fuch as were chiefly ufed after the firfl invention 
of gunpowder ; and which, together with fome other things of 
that kind, had probably been thrown into the well by this gar- 
rifon. This retreat was made in January 1464. 

To remount back to the hiftory of the proprietors of Alnwick 
Caftle : before the Norman conqueft, this caftle-together with the 
barony of Alnwick, and all its dependencies had belonged to a 
great baron, named Gilbert Tyfon, who was {lain fighting along' 
with Harold. His fon William had an only daughter, whom th& 
conqueror gave in marriage to one of his Norman chieftains,, 
named Ivo de Vefcy, together with all the inheritance of her houfe. 
From that period the caftle and barony of Alnwick continued in 
the poffeffion of the Lords de Vefcy down to the time of King 
Edward I. In the 25th year of whofe reign, anno Domini 1297, 
died Lord William de Vefcy, the laft baron of this family ; who 
having no legitimate illue, did, by the king's licence, infeoff An- 
thony Bee, bifhop of Durham, and titular patriarch of Jerufalem,, 
in the caftle and barony of Alnwick. At the fame time William 
gave to a natural fon of his, named alfo William de Vefcy, the 
manor of Hoton Bufcel, in Yorkfhirej which he fettled abfo- 
lutely on him and his heirs - y appointing him, as he was then a 
minor, two guardians, whofe names were Thomas Plaiz, and 
Geoffrey Gyppyfmer Clerk. [See Dugdale's Baronage, vol. i. 
page 95, &c.] 

This appointment, as alfo the very words of the deed of infe- 
offment, (ftill extant) in which the conveyance is to the bifhop 
abfolutc and unconditional, confute a report too haflily taken up 
by fome hiftorians, that this caftle and barony were Only given 
to the bifhop in truft for William the baftard above-mentioned, 
and that he was guilty of a violation of this truft, in difpofing of 
them otherwife. 



' In the bifhop's poffeffion the caftle and barony of Alnwick 
continued twelve years, and were then by him granted and fold 
to the Lord Henry de Percy, one of the greateft barons in the 
North, who had diftinguifhed himfelf very much in the wars of 
Scotland, and whofe family had enjoyed large poffeffions in York- 
shire from the time of the conqueft. The bifhop's deed bears 
date the 19th of November 1309, and was no clandefline or ob- 
fcure tranfaction, for the witneffes to it were fome of the greatefl: 
perfonages in the kingdom, viz. Henry Lacy earl of Lincoln ; 
Robert de Umfreville, earl of Angus ; Robert, Lord Clifford, &c. 
The grant was afterwards confirmed by the king at Sheene, 23d* 
of January 13 10, (anno 3, R. Ed. II.) to Henry de Percy and 
his heirs j who, to remove every pretence of complaint obtained 
a releafe of all right and title to the inheritance from the heir at 
law, Sir Gilbert de Aton, Knt. who was the nearefl legitimate re- 
lation to the Lord William de Vefcy above-mentioned. 

From that period Alnwick Caftle became the great baronial 
feat in the North of the Lords de Percy, and of their fuccefibrs 
the earls of Northumberland ; by whom it was tranfmitted down 
in lineal fucceffion to their illuftrious reprefentatives, the prefent 
duke and duchefs of Northumberland. 

Immediately on its firft acquifition, the Lord Henry de 
Percy began to repair this caftle; and he and his fucceffors, after- 
wards earls of Northumberland, perfected and compleated both 
this citadel and its outworks. 

The two great octagon towers which were fuperadded to the 
old Saxon gateway afore-mentioned, and conftitute the entrance 
into the inner ward,, were erected about the year 1350, by the 
fecond Lord Percy of Alnwick, fon to the former ; who in 1 3 27,. 
had been appointed one of the twelve barons, to whom the go- 
vernment of England was afligned during the minority of King 
Edward III. 

The date of the erection of thefe two towers is afcertained 
very exactly by a feries of efcutcheons fculptured upon them, 
which fufficiently fupply the place of an infcription : and it is^ 



very remarkable, that although thefe towers have now flood up- 
wards of 400 years, they have never received or wanted the lead 
repair. The efcutcheons are arranged in the following order : 

I. A plain fhield with a bend: fuppofed to be the original 
arms of Tyfon the proprietor of this caftle in the Saxon times. 

II. The fhield of Vefcy, lord of Alnwick after the conquefr, 
whofe arms were or, a crofs fable. 

. III. Of Clifford. Idonea, daughter of Robert, Lord Clifford^ 
was wife of Hen. 2d Lord Percy of Alnwick, who built thefe towers. 
In colours it would be chequered, or and azure, a fefs gules. 

IV. Of Percy, the proprietor and builder of the towers, viz. 
or, a lion rampant azure. 

V. Of Bohun. William de Bohun, earl of Northampton, 
was in 1350 made lord warden of the Marches, and fo con- 
tinued for two years after, viz. azure, a bend argent charged 
with three mullets fable, between two cottices and fix lions ram- 
pant or. 

VI. Of Plantagenet. Mary, daughter of Hen. Plantagenet, earl 
of Lancafter, and grandfon of King Hen. III. was wife of Hen. 
third Lord Percy of Alnwick, fon to the founder of thefe towers : 
viz. gules, 3 lions rampant or, charged with a label of 5 points. 
In the center are the arms of the fovereign K. Edw. III. viz. France 
and England quarterly: France being then Semee de fleurs de lis. 

VII. Of Warren. Eleanor, daughter of John, earl of Warren 
and Surrey, was wife of Henry, Lord Percy, the founder's grand- 
father : viz. chequered, or and azure. # 

VIII. Of Arundel. Eleanor, daughter of John, earl of Arundel, 
was the founder's mother, wife of Henry Percy, firft Lord of Aln- 
wick, viz. gules, a lion rampant or. 

IX. Of Umfreville. Margaret Percy, one of the founder's 
daughters, was then married to Robert, fon and heir of Gilbert de 
Umfreville, earl of Angus : viz. azure, a cinque foil or, between 
6 croflets argent. 

X. Of Percy again. Ifabel Percy, another of the daughters was 
then unmarried. She was afterwards wife of William de Aton. 

XI. Of 


XI. Of Neville. Maud Percy, the founder's eldeft daughter, 
was wife of John Lord Neville of Raby : viz. gules, a faltire 

XII. Of Fitz Walter. Eleanor Percy, his fecond daughter, 
was married to John Lord Fitz Walter : viz. or, a fefs between 2 
chevrons gules. 

It deferves remark that the prefent duke of Northumberland 
is by his grandmother, daughter of Marmaduke Lord Langdale, 
lineally defcended from the two ladies laft mentioned, and through 
them from the ancient Lords de Percy. 


Alnwick Castle contains about five acres of ground within 
its outer walls, which are flanked with fixteen towers and turrets, 
that now afford a compleat fet of offices to the caftle, and retain 
many of. them their' original names, as well as their ancient ufe 
and deftination. 

These are, 

I. The great or outward gate of entrance, anciently called the 
Utter Ward. 

II. The Garner or Avener's Tower ; behind which are the {ta- 
bles, coach houfes, &c. in all refpects fuitable to the magnitude and 
dignity of this great caflle. 

III. The Water Tower, containing the ciftern or refervoir that 
fupplies the caflle and offices with water. — Adjoining to this is the 
laundry, &c> 

IV. The Caterer's Tower; adjoining to which are the kitchens, 
and all conveniencies of that fort. 

Behind the adjacent walls are concealed a complete fet of 
offices and apartments for mofl of the principal officers and atten- 
dants in the caftle ; together with a large hall, or dining room, to 
entertain the tenants at the audits ; with an office for the auditors, 
houfe-keeper's room 3 and underneath thefe, a fervants hall, with 
all other fuitable conveniencies. 
■ Vol. IV. N V. The 


V. The Middle Ward.— VI. The Auditor's Tower.— -VII. The 
Guard Houfe.— VIII. The Eaft Garret.— IX. The Records Tower, 
of which the lower ftory contains the evidence room, or great 
repofitory of the archives of the barony : over it is a circular 
apartment defigned and executed with great tafte and beauty for 
a banquetting room ; being twenty-nine feet diameter, and twenty- 
four feet fix inches high. 

X. The Ravine Tower, or Hotfpur's Chair. Between this and 
the Round Tower was formerly a large breach in the walls, which 
for time immemorial had been called by the town's-people, the 
Bloody Gap. 

XI. The Conftable's Tower, which remains chiefly in its an- 
cient ftate, as a fpecimen how the caftle itfelf was once fitted up. 

XII. The Poftern Tower, or Sally Port. The upper apart- 
ment now contains old armour, arms, &c. The lower ftory 
has a fmall furnace and elaboratory for chymical or other ex- 

XIII. The Armourer's Tower. — XIV. The Falconer's Tower. 

XV. The Abbot's Tower, fo called either from its fituation 
neareft to Alnwick Abbey, or from its containing an apart- 
ment for the abbot of that monaftery whenever he retired to 
the caftle. 

XVI. The Weft Garret. 

The caftle properly confifts of three courts or divifions ; the 
entrance into which was defended with three ftrong mafTy gates 5 
called the Utter Ward, the Middle Ward, and the Inner Ward. 
Each of thefe gates was in a high embattled tower, furnifhed with 
a portcullis, and the outward gate with a draw-bridge alfo j they 
had each of them a porter's lodge, and a ftrong prifon, befides, 
other neceflary apartments for the conftable, bailiff, and fubordi- 
nate officers. Under each cf the prifons was a deep and dark 
dungeon, into which the more refractory prifoners were let down 
with cords, and from which there was no exit but through the 
trap-door in the floor above. That of the inner ward is ftill re- 
maining in all its original horrors. 



This caftle, like many others in the north, was anciently orna- 
mented with figures of warriors, diftributed round the battlements, 
and therefore the prefent noble proprietors have allowed them to 
be continued, and have fupplied fome that had been deftroyed ;, 
but to fhew what they once were, and that this is no innovation, 
they have retained the ancient ones, though defaced, which were 
placed on the top of the two octagon towers. 

From length of time, and the mocks it had fuftained in ancient 
wars, this caftle was become quite a ruin, when by the death of 
Algernon duke of Somerfet, it devolved, together with all the 
eftates of this great barony, &c. to the prefent duke and duchefs 
of Northumberland ; who immediately fet to repair the fame, and 
with the moft confummate tafte and judgment reftored and em- 
bellifhed it, as much as poffible, in the true Gothic ftyle ; £o that it 
may defervedly be confidered as one of the nobleft and moft mag- 
nificent models of a great baronial caftle. 

Nothing can be more ftriking than the effect at firft en- 
trance within the walls from the town, when through a dark 
gloomy gateway of confiderable length and depth, the eye fud- 
denly emerges into one of the moft fplendid fcenes that can be 
imagined ; and is prefented at once with the great body of the 
inner caftle, furrounded with fair femicircular towers, finely 
fwelling to the eye, and gaily adorned with pinnacles, figures, 
.battlements, &c. 

The impreffion is ftill further ftrengthened by the facceffive 
. entrance into the fecond and third courts, through great mafty 
towers, till the ftranger is landed in the inner court, in the very* 
center of this great citadel. 

Here he enters to a moft beautiful ftair-cafe, of a very fingular 
yet pleafing form, expanding like a fan : the cornice of the deling 
is inriched with a feries of one hundred and twenty efcutcheons r 
difplaying the principal quarterings and intermarriages of the 
. Percy family. The fpace occupied by this ftair-cafe is forty-fix 
feet long, thirty-five feet four inches wide, and forty-three feet 
two inches high. 



The firft room that prefents to the left, is the faloon, which 
is a moft beautiful apartment, defigned in the gayeft and mofV. 
elegant ftyle of Gothic archite£ture ; being forty-two feet eight 
inches long, thirty-feven feet two inches wide, and nineteen feet 
ten inches high. 

To this fucceeds the drawing-room, confiding of one large 
oval, with a femicircular projection, or bow-window. It is 
forty-fix feet feven inches long, thirty-five feet four inches wide,, 
and twenty-two feet high. 

Hence the tranfition is very properly to the great dining room ; 
which was one of the firft executed, and is of the purer! Gothic, 
with niches and other ornaments, that render it a very noble 
model of Great Baron's Hall. In this room was an irregularity 
in the form, which has been managed with great (kill and judg- 
ment, and made productive of beauty and convenience. This was 
a large bow-window, not in the center, but towards the upper 
end, which now affords a very agreeable recefs when the family 
dine alone, or for a fecond table at the great public diners. This 
room is fifty-three feet nine inches long, twenty feet ten inches 
wide, (exclufive of the circular recefs, which is nineteen feet in 
diameter) and twenty-fix feet nine inches high. 

From the dining room, the ftranger may either defcend into 
the court, by a circular ftair-cafe, or he is ufhered into a very 
beautiful Gothic apartment over the gateway, commonly ufed for 
a breakfaft or fupper room : this is furnifhed with clofets in the 
octagon towers, and is connected with other private apartments. 
It is thirty-eight feet four inches long, . . feet wide, and fixteen 
feet one inch high. 

Hence the ftranger is conducted into the library, which is 
a very fine room, in the form of a parallelogram, properly fitted 
up for books, and ornamented with ilucco work in a very rich 
Gothic ftile; being fixty-four feet long, . . wide, and fixteen feet 
one inch high. This apartment leads to 

The chapel 3 which fills all the upper fpace of the Middle ward. 
Here the higheft difplay of Gothic ornaments in the greateft 



beauty has been very properly exhibited j and the feverat parts of 
the chapel have been defigned after the moft perfect models of 
Gothic excellence. The great eaft window is taken from one 
of the fmeft in York Minfter ; the cieling is borrowed from that 
of King's College, in Cambridge ; and the walls are painted after 
the great church in Milan : but the windows of painted glafs will 
be in a ftile fuperior to any thing that has yet been attempted, 
and worthy of the prefent more improved ftate of the arts. Ex- 
clufive of a beautiful circular recefs for the family, the chapel is 
fifty feet long, twenty-one feet four inches wide, and twenty-two 
feet high. 

Returning from the chapel through the library, and paffing 
by another great ftair-cafe, (that fills an oval fpace twenty-two 
feet nine inches long, and fifteen feet three inches wide) we enter 
a pafTage or gallery which leads to two great ftate bed chambers, 
each thirty feet long, moft nobly furnifhed, with double drefling 
rooms, clofets and other conveniencies, all in the higheft elegance 
and magnificence, but as conformable as pofhble to the general 
ftile of the caftle. From thefe bed chambers the pafTage opens to 
the grand ftair-cafe, by which we firft entered, and completes a 
tour not eafily to be paralleled. 


BaMBOROUGH Caftle is fituated upon an almoft perpen- 
dicular rock, clofe to the fea, and acceffible only on the fouth-eaft 
fide, on a fpot where, according to the monkifh hiftorians, there 
ftood the caftle or palace of the kings of Northumberland j built, 
as it is faid, by King Ida, who began his reign about the year 559. 
Part of the prefent ruins are by fome fuppofed to be the remains 
of King Ida's work ; and others carry their antiquity ftill higher, 
and affert the keep to have been a Roman ftructure j for which 
fuppofition they give the following reafons : its great fimilarity 
to the keep of Dover Caftle and the White Tower of London, 
both allowed to be Roman - 3 the fhape of its arches, which are 
Vol. IV. O either 


either flat or femicircular j a Doric bafe round its bottom ; and 
the great depth of its well, funk feventy-five feet through a whin 
ftone rock. The firft of thefe is evidently founded on a miftake ; 
neither the White Tower, nor the keep of Dover Caftle, being 
Roman, but built fince the conquer!; the laft in the time of 
Henry II. proofs of which are to be met with in Dugdale's Mo- 
nafticon, the Textus Roffenfis, anddiverfe other authentic records. 
Nor is the proof drawn from the mape of its arches more conclu- 
sive j femicircular and flat arches are found in almoft every build- 
ing erected before the time of Henry II. repeated inftances of 
which occur in this work. And for the argument deduced from 
its Doric bafe, it is not at all wonderful or uncommon to find the 
members of Grecian architecture employed in Norman buildings. 
One inftance of this, among many, may be feen at the cathedral 
of Canterbury, where a maflive column, placed in the undercroft 
to fupport fome vail: weight, has a rude fort of Ionic capital. 
Befides, it is well known, mofr. of the architects of thofe days 
learned their art at Rome, where they had the Grecian architec- 
ture continually before them ; of which, indeed, the Saxon was 
only a debafed kind. After the flupendous works carried on by 
cur Norman anceftors, it feems extraordinary that the digging of 
the above-mentioned Well mould appear fo arduous an under- 
taking as to be deemed poffible to the Romans only. Befides, in 
Beefton Caflle, Chefhire, there is a well full as deep cut through 
the folid rock ; and that is univerfally known to be the work of 
the Normans. 

I should not have taken the pains to confute this erroneous 
opinion, the fallacy of which is fufficiently evident to any one 
who has confidered many of our ancient buildings ; but that by 
prelcripticn it has gained fo frrong a footing, as to be univerfally 
admitted through Northumberland. On the whole, though there 
was undoubtedly a fortrefs or palace here in the Saxon times, and 
perhaps earlier, every part of the prefent building feems to have 
been the work of the Normans. 



The ancient name of this place was, it is faid, Bebbanborough ; 
which name Camden, from the authority of Bede, imagines bor- 
rowed from a Queen Bebba ; but the author of the additions to 
that writer is of a contrary opinion, as in the Saxon copy it is 
called Cynclicanberg, or the Royal Manfion. 

'According to Florilegus, it was built by King Ida, who at 
firft fenced it only with a wooden enclofure ; but afterwards fur- 
rounded it with a wall. It is thus defcribed by Roger Hoveden, 
who wrote in the year 1192 : " Bebba is a very ftrong city, but 
not exceeding large ; containing not more than two or three acres 
of ground. It has but one hollow entrance into it, which is ad- 
mirably raifed by fteps. On the top of the hill ftands a fair 
church ; and in the weflern point is a well curioufly adorned, and 
of fweet clean water." The church here mentioned was dedicated 
by King Ofwald to St. Adian. 

This caftle was befieged anno 642, by Penda, the Pagan king 
of the Mercians, who, as the ftory goes, attempted to burn it f for 
which purpofe he laid vaft quantities of wood under the walls, 
and fet fire to it as foon as the wind was favourable; but no fooner 
was it kindled, than by the prayers of St. Adian, the wind changed 
and carried the flames into his camp, fo that he was obliged to 
raife the fiege. From this it fhould feem that the enclofure was 
then of wood, as it is not probable King Penda would attempt to 
fet ft,one walls on fire; indeed, if he was fo abfurd, St. Adian was 
at the expence of an unneceffary miracle ! 

In the year 710, King Ofred, on the death of Alfred his father, 
took fhelter in this caffle with Brithric his tutor or guardian ; on& 
Edulph having feized the crown, by whom, with his partizans, they 
were unfuccefsfully befieged. 

Brithric made fo gallant a defence that the fiege was turned 
into a blockade, which gave the loyal fubjecls time to arm in de-^ 
fence of their young king. On their marching hither to his relief,. 
Edulph fled, but wasfollowed, taken, and put to death by Brithric,, 
who thereby fecurely feated Ofred on the throne, when this caflle 
became his palace. 



In the reign of Egbert, Kenulph, bifhop of Lindisfarn, was 
confined here thirty years, from 750 to 780. Anno 933, it was 
plundered and totally ruined by the Danes ; but being of great 
importance, in defending the Northern parts againft the continual 
incurfions of the Scots, it was foon after repaired, and made a 
place of conhdcrable ftrength. 

It is faid to have been in good repair at the time of the conqueft, 
when it was probably put into the cuftody of fome trufty Norman, 
and had in all likelihood fome additions made to its works ; and 
this is the more probable, as the prefent area, contained within its 
walls, meafures upwards of eighty acres, inftead of three, as when 
defcribed by Hoveden. 

About the year 1095 it was in the poheffion of Robert dc 
Mowbray, earl of Northumberland, who engaging in fome trea- 
sonable practices againft William Rufus, that king laid fiege to 
it. Mowbray not thinking himfelf fafe, fled to Tinemouth, leav- 
ing the defence of the cattle to his flevvard and kinfman Morel, 
who made fo vigorous a refiftance, that the king defpairing to 
take it by force, formed a blockade, by building a ftrong fort near 
it called Malvoifin, or the Bad Neighbour* At length the king's 
patience being worn out by the obftinate defence made by Morel, 
he caufed the earl, who had been taken at Tinemouth, to be led 
clofe to the walls of the caftle, and proclamation to be made that 
unlefs it was immediately furrendered, his eyes mould be put out. 
This threat had the defired effect. To fave his mailer, Morel 
furrendered upon terms ; and to the honour of Rufus, it is to be 
added, that in conhderation of the gallant defence made by him, 
and his fidelity to his mafter, that king took him into his royal 
favour and protection. 

In the next reign it was entrufted by Henry I. to Euftace Fitz 
John, who was difpofTefTed of it and his other employments by 
King Stephen, that king being jealous of his attachment to 
Maud, daughter of Henry I. Irritated' at this, Fitz John deli- 
vered the caftle of Alnwick to David king of Scotland^ and 
brought to his aid all the forces he could raife - } he was, however, 



afterwards reconciled to King Stephen, and held the manors of 
Burgh and Knarefborough in Yorkfhire, but neyer recovered the 
government of this caftle. 

In the 16th of Henry II. fome great repairs feem to have been 
done here, as in Madox's Hiftory of the Exchequer, under the 
article of amercements, it appears, one William, fon of Waldef, 
was fined five marks for refufing his afliftance in the king's works 
at Baenburg Caftle; he fined alfo 40s. to have refpite touching 
the faid works. Perhaps at this time the keep was built, its great 
fimilarity to that of Dover, the work of this reign, makes it at 
leaft probable. 

William Heron, fon of Jordan Heron, who held a barony 
in the county, by the fervice of one knight's fee, as his anceftors 
had done from the conqueft, was in the 32d of Henry III. con- 
ftituted governor of Bamborough Caftle, and of thofe of Pickering 
and Scarborough in Yorkfhire, in which appointments he was 
fucceeded, 37th of the fame reign, by John de Lexington, Knt. 
chief juftice of all the forefts north of Trent. 

Anno 1296, King Edward I. fummoned John Baliol, the king 
of Scotland, to appear before him at this caftle, to anfwer for 
breach of faith : but he not appearing, Edward attacked and took 
Berwick, and put the garrifon to the fword. From thence he 
directed his march towards Dunbar, and in his way meeting the 
Scottifh army, he engaged and overthrew them. Twenty thou- 
fand Scots, it is faid, fell in that action ; after which he reduced 
Dunbar, took Baliol prifoner, and brought him to England, with 
the ftone chair of the kings of Scotland, efteemed the Palladium 
of that country. This chair is ftrll preferved in Weftminfter 

Isabel de Beaumont, related to Eleanor, queen of Ed- 
ward I. and widow firft of John de Vefcy, afterwards of John 
duke of Brabant, had a grant. of this caftle for her life, on the 
provifo that fhe did not marry again. To her alfo, the 5th of 
Edward II. was committed the cuftody of Scarborough Caftle j 
but fhe did not long enjoy them, dying the fame year. During 

Vol. IV. P her 


her pofleflion, Piers de Gaveftone was placed here by the king, to 
fave him from the vengeance of an injured and incenfed nobility, 
who after, in 13 12, dragged him to juftice from the caftle of 

A. D. 13 1 5. It appears from the Rolls of Parliament, that 
Roger dc Horieky was conftable of this caftle, when a complaint 
was exhibited againft him by fome merchants, whofe goods he 
had feized j' and in the year 1322, in a MSS. account of Roger 
de Waltham, keeper of the wardrobe, is an entry mewing that he 
furnifhed fifty-four hoblers to the army of Edward II. for his 
expedition to Scotland. A Sir John Horfley, probably a dcfcen- 
dant of the above named Roger, was captain of this caftle in the 
1 ft of Edward VI. anno 1548, and is mentioned as fuch by Wil- 
liam Patten, in his narration of the expedition into Scotland under 
the duke of Somerfet. 

It was a fhort time held by Roger Heron, a younger fon of 
the family of William Pleron before mentioned, after which it 
was conferred on Henry Percy, who was made governor of this 
and Scarborough Caftle, for his good fervices in the Scottifh 
wars. In his family it continued fome fucceflions, and to his 
grandfon together with the manor and fee farm rent of the 
town, was granted for life ; and Henry Percy, ear] of Northum- 
berland, was conftable of it in the reign of Henry VI. During 
the contention between that king and the houfe of York, there 
were diverfe governors, according to the party which happened to 
be victorious. Sir Ralph Grey, Knt. of the garter, and John 
Lord Wenlock, were both of them conftables of it for Plenry VI. 
the latter in the 25th year of that king i he neverthelefs fided with 
Edward IV. and ferved under him at Tewton. 

Anno 1463, this caftle was befieged by the Yorkifts under the 
command of the earl of Arundel, Lord Ogle and the Lord Mon- 
tague. It was furrendered on Chriftmas Eve, and the duke of 
Somerfet, and Sir Ralph Percy who had held it for King Henry, 
were pardoned and received into favour. 

• Anno 


Anno . 1644, Sir Ralph Grey 'having furprifed this caftle, gar- 
rifoned it with Scotchmen and held it for the king. He was be- 
fieged by the earls of Northumberland and Warwick, and know- 
ing that he could expecl no favour, defended it till the end of 
July, when a tower being beat down by their cannon, which in 
its fall fo crufhed and ftunned him that he was taken up for dead, 
the garrifon furrendered, and he recovering was carried prifoner 
to York, where he was beheaded as a traytor. 

The damages it f attained in this and other attacks were not re- 
paired in that or the fucceeding reigns, Hen. VII. and VIII. both 
adeeming thefe catties as refuges for malcontents. It remained in 
the crown to the icth of Elizabeth, when that queen appointed Sir 
John Forfter of Bamborough Abbey governor of it; his grandfon, 
John Forfter, Efq; afterwards had a grant of it and the manor, 
whofe defcendant, Thomas Forfter of Ethelftone, engaging in the 
rebellion, anno 171 5, his eftates were confiscated, but afterwards 
purchafed by his uncle Lord Crew, bifhop of Durham, and by 
him bequeathed in truft for charitable ufes. By one of the pre- 
sent truftees, -the Reverend Dr. Sharp, archdeacon of Durham, 
the keep of this caftle has been made habitable, and the whole 
appropriated to the pious defign of the founder, under regulations 
which at once do honour to his head and heart. A more parti- 
cular account of them will be given in the next plate. 

An ancient MSS. in the library of his grace the duke of Nor- 
thumberland, containing an account of the eftates, manors, &c. 
of the priory of Tinemouth, in which is tranfcribed from the 
Tefte de Nevil and other public records, many tenures refpecting 
the county of Northumberland ; there are in fabftance the fol- 
lowing particulars relative to this cattle. t£ The porter of Bam- 
horough Caftle held lands for the performance of that office, and 
on condition of finding one Wardes, as did alfo Walter, a fmith 
by the fervice of doing the iron work in the caftle. This view, 
which reprefehts the north-weft afpec~t was drawn anno 1773. 



( PLATE II. ) 

Having in the former plate endeavoured to fettle the age and 
ftile of the prefent buildings of this caftle, and mentioned the 
moft remarkable tranfactions which have happened here, it re- 
mains to fay fomething of its interior parts, and the different 
materials with which it is conftructed. 

The ftones with which the keep or great tower is built are 
(fome lintels excepted) remarkably fmall, and were taken from a 
quarry at Sunderland Sea, three miles diftant. From their fmall- 
nefs it has been conjectured, they were brought hither on the backs 
of men, or horfes. On crumbling the old lime, fragments of 
fhells, and fmall pieces of charcoal, are found among it; from the 
latter it fhould feem as if it was burned before the general ufe of 
coal, or at a time when here was wood in great plenty j and that 
this was once the cafe, feems probable from fome large horns, 
fuppofed to be thofe of red deer, found near this place in clean- 
ing an old drain, which renders it likely here was once a foreft, 
or chace. 

The walls to the front are eleven feet thick; but the other three 
fides are only nine. They appear to have been built with regular 
fcaffblding to the firft ftory ; and fo high, the fillings in the infide 
are mixed with whin ftone, which was probably what came off 
the rock in levelling the foundations ; but there are no whin 
ftone fillings higher up, the walls above having been carried up 
without fcaffolding, in a manor called by the mafons over-hand 
work ; the confequence of which is, that they all over hang a 
little, each fide of the tower being a few inches broader at the top 
than at the bottom. 

The original roof was placed no higher than the top of the 
fecond ftory. The reafon for the fide walls being carried fo much 
higher than the roof, might be for the fake of defence, or to com.-, 
mand a more extenfive look out both towards the fea and land. 
The tower was, however, afterwards covered at the very top. 



Here were no chimneys. The only fire-place in it was a 
grate in the middle of a large room, fuppofed to have been the 
guard-room, where fome {tones in the middle of the floor are 
burned red. The floor was all of {lone, fupported by arches* 
This room had a window in it, near the top, three feet fquare* 
poffibly intended to let out the fmoke : all the other rooms were 
lighted only by Hits or chinks in the wall, fix inches broad, ex- 
cept in the gables of the roof; each of which had a window one 
foot broad. The rock on which this tower {lands, rifes about 
150 feet above low- water mark. 

The out-works are built of a very different {lone from that of 
the Keep, being a' coarfe free-flone of an inferior quality, ill 
abiding the injuries of weather. This {lone was taken out of the 
rock itfelf ; a large feam of it lying immediately under the whin 

In all the principal rooms of the outworks there are large 
chimneys ; particularly in the kitchen, which meafures forty feet > 
by thirty ; where there are three very large ones, and four win- 
dows : over each window is a {lone funnel, like a chimney, open 
at the top ; intended, as it is fuppofed, to carry off" the {learn. - 

In a narrow paffage, near the top of the Keep, was found up- 
wards of fifty iron heads of arrows rufled together into one mafs; 
the longeft of them about feven inches and an half. It is likely 
they were originally all of the fame length. There was likewife 
found fome painted glafs, fuppofed to have formerly belonged to- 
the windows of the chapel. It was not flained ; but had the co- 
lours coarfely laid upon it. 

In December 1 770, in finking the floor of the cellar, a curious 
draw-well was accidentally found. Its depth is 145 feet, all cut 
through the folid rock ; of which J 5 feet is a hard whin {lone. 

In the fummer of the year 1773, on throwing over the bank a 
prodigious quantity of fand, the remains of the chapel was dif- 
covered ; its length 100 feet. The chancel is now quite cleared. 
It is 36 feet long, and 20 broad ; the eafl end, according to the 
Saxon fafhion, femicircular. The altar, which has been like- 
wife found, did not {land dole to the eafl end, but in the center 

Vol. IV. Q^ of 


of the femicircle, with a walk about it, three feet broad, left for 
the prieit. to carry the hoft in proceflion. The front, richlj 
carved, is alfo remaining. 

Among the ruins here the following coins have been picked 
up. Three Roman denarii ; one of them a Vefpafian. Alfo two 
brafs pieces : one, about the fize of a farthing, or rather lefs, 
having on one fide a rude head, full-faced, furrounded with a 
border of pellets; on the reverfe, a large key, alfo furrounded 
with a like border : the other of the fame metal and fize, but 
rather thinner ; on the anterior fide, a lion rampant ; reverfe, a 
crofs fleury, with two pellets in each quarter; both fides fur- 
rounded with pellets : they were both in good prefervation ; but 
no trace of any infcription was difcoverable. Likewife a blank of 
copper, the breadth of a halfpenny, but thin, on which there 
had never been any infcription. It is fuppofed to have been {truck 
in the time of a fiege. Befides thefe, fome Scots and Norman 
or old French coins have been found ; but of thefe only a few. 

In the year 1757, the truflees for lord Crew's charity, began 
the repairs of this tower, under the direction of Dr. Sharpe, when 
it was fitted up for the reception of the poor. The upper parts 
were formed into granaries, whence, in times of fcarcity, corn is 
fold to the indigent without any diftinction, at four millings per 
bufhel. A hall and fome fmall apartments are referved by the 
Doctor, who frequently refides here to fee that his noble plan i3 
properly executed. 

Among the variety of diftroffed who find relief from the judi- 
cious difpofition of this charity, are the mariners navigating this 
dangerous coaft, for whofe benefit a conftant watch is kept on 
the top of the tower ; from whence fignals are given to the 
fifhermen of Holy I (land when any fhip is difcovered in diftrefs ; 
thefe fifhermen by their fituation being able to put off their boats, 
when none from the main land can get over the breakers. The 
fignals are fo regulated as to point out the particular place where 
the diftrefTed veflel lies. Befides which, in every great ftorm, 
two men on horfeback patrole the adjacent coaft from fun-fet to 
inn-rife, who, in cafe of any fhipwreck, are to give immediate 




notice at the caftle. Premiums are likewife paid for the earliefr. 
information of any fuch misfortune. By thefe means the lives 
of many feamen have been, and will be preferred, who would 
otherwife have perifhed for want of timely affiftance. 

Nor does this benevolent arrangement flop here. The fhip- 
wrecked mariner finds an hofpitable reception in this caftle ; and 
is here maintained for a week, or longer, as circumftances may 
require. Here, likewife, are ftore-houfes for depofiting the 
goods which may be faved ; inftruments and tackle for weighing 
and raifing the funken and ftranded veflels ; and, to complete 
the whole, at the expence of this fund, the laft offices are decently 
performed to the bodies of fuch drowned failors as are caft on 

This view reprefents the fouth afpec"t, and was drawn anno 


The following account of this priory is given by Bourne in his 
hiftory of Newcaftle : 

This monaftery was founded by Sir Peter Scott, who was the 
firft mayor of Newcaftle, anno 1251, and Sir Nicholas Scott his 
fon, who was one of the four bailiffs of the town 1254, 1257, 
and capital bailiff 1269 ; but the fite of it was- given by three 
fitters, whofe names have long fince been ungratefully buried in 

When was the particular time of its building, I have met 

with no account ; but it is not difficult to give a probable guefs. 

The order, itfelf, of the dominicans, or black friars, came into 

England in the year 1221 ; confequently it mufr. have been 

founded after that time : and that it mufr. have been founded 

fome years before the year 1280, is plain to a demonftration ; 

for in that year, which was the eighth of Edward I. the black 

friars had licence from the king to break a door through this new 

or town-wall into their garden, which proves them a regular 

fettled body at that time, and therefore, that their priory was 

built fome years before that licence 



We are told that this monaftery was in old time called the grey 
friars, which, in my opinion, is a thing highly improbable ; 
for the grey friars, or francifcans, came not into England till 
about the year 1224 ; and if, as I have proved above, the black 
friars were a fettled body fome years before the year 1280, how 
is it poffible to have been called of old time the grey friars ? This 
is therefore a miftake : and befides, the dominicans came into 
England before the francifcans, or grey friars, and therefore more 
probably were fooner in this place. 

It has been a very (lately building, as appears by the prefent 
remains of it. The area, or grafs plot, is about 87 feet in 
length, and as many in breadth. On the eaft ride of it was the 
chapel, which is now the hall of the company of fmiths in this 
town. On the weft fide of it is a curious old well, which ferved 
the monaftery with water, called our lady's well. On the fouth 
may ftill be feen the ruins of a curious front, on which fide is the 
hall of the cordwainers, in which I faw a pair of winding ftairs, 
which they told me (before they were walled up) led by a vault 
as far as the nunnery of St. Bartholomew. On the north of it 
were their gardens, a part of which was the wardens clofe before' 
the building of that part of the town-wall. This appears by the 
charter granted to the monaftery in the reign of Edward I. about 
the breaking out that narrow gate in the wall between weftgate 
and newgate, in which grant it is faid that the wall went through 
the middle of their garden. This monaftery was dependent on 
the priory of Tynemouth. 

In the reign of Edward II. the brethren of this monaftery had 
licence granted them for the building of a draw-bridge beyond 
the new ditch of the caftle. 

Who were the priors of this monaftery, what eminent men 
belonged to them, or what things were tranfa&ed by them, 
from their beginning to their diflolution, were things undoubt- 
edly preferved among themfelves whilft they were a body ; "but 
after their furrender were either deftroyed, or have not yet come 
to light. 



One of the priors of this monaftery , was one Richard Marfhall. 
I take this gentleman, to have been the laft prior of this mona- 
ftery ; for in the 28th of Henry VIII. a grant' of a tenement, 
nigh the white crofs (figned by friar Richard Marfhall, doclbr 
and prior; and friar David Simpfon, and friar John Sourby) 
was given to Anthony Oodfalve, upon his paying to "the faid 
priory or monaftery 9s. per ann. This grant is now in the pof- 
feffion of Mr. Thomas Marfhall of Newcaftle,* joiner, who pur- 
chafed this tenement, and has lately rebuilt it. He pa}^s the 
fame rent to the town of Newcaftle, which the tenement paid 
the monaftery. About two years after the figning of this deed, 
in January, the 30th of this reign, this monaftery furrendered. 
It confifted of a prior and 1 2 friars. 

What became of the brethren of this friary after their fur- 
render, what they had allowed them annually for a maintenance, 
or whether they had any thing allowed at all, does not appear. 
Some account, indeed, I met with afterwards of the prior him- 
felf, but none of the friars ; it is this which follows : 

Richard Marshall, prior of the black friars in I^ewcaflle, 
about the year 1 55 1 went into Scotland, and preached, at St. An- 
drews, that the pater nofter mould be addrefled to God, and not 
to the faints. Some doctors of the univerfity being difgufted 
with this afTertion, prevailed with one Tofts, a grey friar, to 
undertake to prove that the pater nofter might be faid to the 
faints ; whofe ignorance in doing the fame was fo manifeft, that 
he became the common jeft, and quitted the town. 

After the furrender of this monaftery, on January the 10th, 
30th of Henry VIII. the black friars was granted to the town of 
Newcaflle, in confederation of 53I. jfs. 6d. The annual value of 
it was 2I. 19s. 6d. 

The king fays in his grant, that he gives to the mayor and 
fcurgeffes .of Newcaftle, the whole houfe and fite, lately a priory, 
or houfe of brethren, called vulgarly the black friars, in New-' 
caftle-upon-Tyne ; the chapel, houfes, edifices, gardens, &c. 
the hall; two chambers ; a chamber called the crofs chamber ; 
and two gardens, with their appurtenances ; and the whole clofe 

Vol. IV. R within 


within the weft gate, and another clofe near the fite of the faid 
priory on the north ; and a clofe containing three acres, and a 
houfe in the fame clofe, without the walls of the faid town ; and 
a houfe called the gate-houfe, fituated near the ftreet. It alfo ap- 
pears from the firft grant, that the king referved to himfelf and 
fucceflbrs the bells and lead that was upon the church belonging 
to this friary, and the other buildings of it ; the lead in the gut- 
ters, together with the ftones andiron of the church, &c. 

The nine crafts of this town had their meeting-houfes or halls 
in it, andftillhave, except two of them, the taylors and the cord- 
wainers, who have beftowed thefe upon fome poor widows, and 
got themfelves others in other places. Thefe halls are of great 
iervice to this ancient building, in preferving it from intire ruin. 
Such is the hall of the fmiths, which was repaired by them in 
the year 1709, John Kellet, Thomas Turner, Jonathan Gibfon, 
Roger Haddock, being wardens; the hall of the dyers; the hall 
of the bakers and brewers, which was repaired by them in the 
year 17,11, Chriftopher Rutter, Lionel Dixon, William Dove, 
John Make-apiece, being then wardens : thefe halls were on the 
caft fide of the friary. Such alfo are thofe on the weft fide of it, 
viz. the hall of the fadlers, which was repaired by them in the 
year 1729, Cuthberkley and Matthew Anderfon, wardens; and 
the hall of the fkinners and glovers, which was repaired by them 
in the year 1721, John Emmerfon, Robert Barnes, Robert Shutt, 
Philip Smith, wardens. Such are thofe alfo on the fouth fide 
of it, viz. the cordwainers hall, which was turned into apart- 
ments for three widows in the year 1729, John Wheatley and 
George Alder being wardens. The hall of the butchers, and the 
hall of the tanners, were repaired in the year 171 7, Thomas An- 
derfon, William Harrifon, Thomas Dixon, William Slater, 

By the means of thefe halls, there is ftill fome viftage of the 
friary remaining, which had otherwife been intirely in duft. It 
is a pity that thofe people, who are permitted by the companies 
to relide in fome of thofe rooms, are not threatened into more 
c leanlinefs ; and that the companies themfelves are not at the 



expence of repairing the area. Were thefe things done, it would 
be a beautiful piece of antiquity, and the entertainment of the 
curious from whencefoever they come. 

Browne Willis, in his hiftory of abbies, fays, Rowland 
Harding was the laft prior of the Newcastle dominicans ; and that 
he, with twelve friars, Surrendered their convent 10th January 
1539, 30th Henry VIII. This was the only dominican monaftery 
in Newcaftle. This view was drawn anno 1773. 


This caftle was built by Robert Courthofe, fon of William the 
Conqueror, anno 1080, on which account the town took the 
name of Newcaftle; before that period it was called Monkchefter. 
Soon after its erection, Robert de Mowbray, earl of Northum- 
berland, was befieged here by William Rufus : in that liege the 
caftle was much damaged. It was repaired by king John, who 
made a ditch about it ; in doing which he was obliged to deftroy 
feveral houfes : for thefe, however, he ordered an hundred and 
ten millings and fixpence of rent of efcheat, as a compenfation 
to the owners, as may be feen by his charter to the town of New- 
caftle. This caftle was confidered of fuch confequence, that 
moft of the neighbouring baronies paid conliderable fums towards 
its fupport, under the articles of caftle ward and cornage. The 
feveral fums paid are mentioned in Bourne's hiftory of Newcaftle : 
befides thefe, divers houfes, yards, and gardens, likewife contri- 
buted to it. 

" In the 9th of Edward 3d, (fays Bourne) an inquifition was 
" taken at this town, whereby it was found, that at the time of 
** the battle of Bannockburn, which was in the year 13 13, when 
" John de Kenont, knt. was high fherirF of Northumberland, 
"■ the caftle and all its edifices about it were in good repair : 
" that after that time Nicholas Scot, Adam deSwinburn, Wil- 
liam Riddel, Johannes de Fenwick, Cuthbert de Broughdon, 




" Johannes de Fenwick, Johannes .de Woodhorn, Johannes dr 
" Lilleburne, Willielmus de Tyndale, Roger Mauduit, and 
*•' Robcrtus Darreius, were high-iherifrs of Northumberland ; 
" during which time it is affirmed the great tower, and alfo the 
k4 lefler ones of the laid caftle, the great hall, with the king's 
" chamber adjoining to it, together with diverfe other chambers 
*' below in the queen's mantle, and the buttery-cellar and 
'■* pantry"; the king's chapel within the cafUe, a certain houfe 
" beyond the gate which is called the checker houfe, with the 
" bridges within and without the gate, with three gates and 
" one poftern, are 300/. worfe than they were. They alfo fay, 
44 that there are in the cuftody of Roger Mauduit, late high 
" fherift, 420 fother of lead. They fay alfo, that it was thought 
'• highly necenary that the baron Heron of Huddefton, the baron 
14 of Walton, lord Robert Clifford of the new place, chief lord 

" of the barony of Gangie, the lords of the barony of , and 

44 Devilfton, that the lord of Werk upon Tweed, the lord of 
** the barony of Bolbeck, alias Bywell, the baron of Bothal, and 
" laftly, the baron of Delaval, fhould build each of them a houfe 
'* within the liberties of the caftle for the defence of it. The 
*■' houfe of the baron of Werk was built over the poftern. 

4t There were two great ftrong walls which furrounded the 
* 4 caftle ; the interior wall was of no great diftance from the 
w caftle itfelf, as maybe ftill feen in feveral places. The exte- 
44 rior wall lurrounds the verge of the caftle bounders. From 
" this outer wall were four gates, the great gate, and three 
" pofterns. The north fide of the caftle is the main gate, called 
" now the black gate ; it had two port-culieefTes, one without 
" the gate, as may be ftill feen, and another within it at a little 
w diftance from it, the ruins of which were to be feen a few 
14 years ago. There ftill remains a piece of the old wall, which 
4,4 fhews its fituation to have been where that houfe is, which 
*•'- was lately purchafed by Mr. Jafper Harrifon. The (hop be- 
44 longing to this houfe was dug (as I am informed) out of the 
44 wall juft now mentioned. On the eaft fide of the caftle there 
*> was a poftern, which led down to the ftreet called the Side, 

44 which 


" which is ftill to be feen : It was once called (but many years 
" after it was in decay) the Waift of Laurentius Acton. On 
" the fouth fide of the caftle is another gate, which leads down 
*' the caftle flairs to the ftreet called the clofe : This was the 
" fouth poftern. There is an old building upon it, which was 
" the county gaoler's houfe. On the weft fide was the poftern 
" facing Bailiff Gate, now the dwelling-houfe of James Lidfter. 

" There is an houfe in the yard which they fay was the 
" chapel of the garrifon, which is called the Chapel-houfe to 
" this day : it ftands north-eaft from the chapel : its common 
" name now is the three bulls heads." 

21ft Sept. 1 ft of Henry VII. the office of conftable of this 
caftle was granted to William Cafe, Efq. for life, with the ac- 
cuftomed falary and fees ; and in the 9th of the fame reign, it 
being vacant by the death of Sir Robert Moulton, to Roger Fen- 
wick, Efq. for life, with 20I. per ann. fince which no conftable 
has been appointed. It has fince been in the cuftody of the 
meriffs of Northumberland. 

By an inquifition made in the reign of James I. it appears this 
caftle was then much out of repair; and in the 18 th of the fame, 
another being taken, complaint is made that a monftrous dung- 
hill heaped up againft the wall on the weft fide of the caftle, had 
done damage to the amount of 120I. 

It was alfo by the fame inquifition complained of, that the 
great fquare tower was full of chinks and crannies, and that one 
third of it was almoft taken away ; that all the lead and cover- 
ings which it had of old were embezzled and carried off, info- 
much that " the prifoners of the county of Northumberland 
" were moft miferably lodged, by reafon of the fhowers of rain 
'* falling upon them." They computed the charge of repairing 
would be 809L 15s. In 1644 the dunghill above complained of 
was taken away by Sir John Morley, and ufed to make a rampart 
on the town walls againft the Scots : he for the fame purpofe re- 
paired the round tower under the moot hall, now called tfre 
half moon. 

Vol. IV. S " It 


44 It has been (continues Bourne) a building of great ftrength, 
44 and no little beauty ; the vaft thicknefs of the walls fpeaks 
44 the one, and the ruins of fome curious workmanfhip the 
** other. The grand entrance into the caftle was at the gate 
44 facing the fouth, which leads up a pair of ftairs (which ftil'l 
44 fhew the magnificence of the builder) to a very {lately door of 
44 curious mafonry. The room this leads into, has its floor 
44 broken down clofe to the caftle wall, as indeed all the other 
44 floors are to the top of the caftle ; fo that, excepting the floor 
44 above the county gaol, there is not one left, though there 
" have been five divifions or ftories of the caftle befides this; 
44 This floored room, which I was told was lately flagged by the 
44 order of William Ellifon, Efq. alderman, when he was laft 
44 mayor in the year 1723', feems to me, without any doubt, to 
44 have been the common hall of the caftle, becaufe on the 
44 north fide of the fame room, there is an entrance by a defcent 
44 of fome fteps into a room, where is the large ft fire-place I faw 
44 in the caftle, which plainly fpeaks it to have been the kitchen. 
44 At the end of this there are feveral ftairs, which lead into a 
44 place under the kitchen, which I think goes down as low as 
44 the bottom of the caftle. This I take to have been a cellar, 
44 as I do alio that little dark place on the right hand coming up 
44 again, to have been a fort of a pauntry. The door I men- 
44 tioned juft now on the eaft of the caftle, which leads to the 
44 firft broken-down floor, is, becaufe of its grandeur and beauty,. 
44 an argument that this room has been the moft ftately one in 
44 the whole caftle; another reafon for its being fo, is becaufe of 
44 the windows which gave light into it. Thofe of them that 
44 face the eaft are the moft beautiful of the whole caftle befides. 
44 On the fouth of this room there is an entrance into a fort of a 
44 parlour or withdrawing-room, which has a fire-place in it ; 
44 which has been apiece of curious workmanftiip, as is vifible 
44 to this day ; and this place has no communication with any 
44 part of the caftle but this room. On the north fide of this 
44 room is a door leading into an apartment, where ftands a well 
44 of a considerable depth; it was 18 yards before we touched 

44 the 


" the furface of the water ; which feems, to have been placed 
44 there on purpofe for the more immediate fervice of this room. 
44 There are fome little bafons on the top of the well, with pipes 
44 leading from them, which conveyed water to different apart- 
44 ments of the caftle : this is plain from what may be obferved 
" in the county gaol, at the bottom of the caftle ; the round 
" ftone pillar in it having an hollow in the middle, of a foot 
44 wide, with a lead fpout in the fide of it. 

44 In the inquifition made in the 9th of Edward III. above- 
44 mentioned, among other things that were complained of for 
" being neglected, one was capella domini regis infra caftrum. 
" This chapel, I have been told, flood on that part of the caftle- 
44 yard, where the moot-hall is ; but upon fearching, I found 
" it in the caftle itfelf, according to the account of it juft now 
44 mentioned. The door of it is at the bottom of the fouth 
44 wall of the caftle, adjoining to the ftairs which lead into the 
44 . ftate-chamber. It has been a work of great beauty and orna- 
44 ment, and is ftill, in the midft of duft and darknefs, by far 
44 the moft beautiful place in the whole building; the infide of 
44 it being curioufly adorned with arches and pillars. It is eafy 
44 to obferve the different parts of it, the entrance, the body of 
44 it, and the chancel : on the left fide of the entrance you go 
into a dark little room, which undoubtedly was the veftry ; 
the full length of it is 15 yards, the breadth of it 6 yards and z 
half. It had 3 or 4 windows towards the eaft, which are now 
44 all filled up, nor is there any light but what comes in at a little 
44 cranny in the wall. Nicholas de Byker tenet terras fuas ut 
44 faciat deftricliones ad ward novi caftelli fuper tynam faciend* 
44 et pro deb' domini regis inter tynam et cocket, &c. And then 
44 my authority goes on to fay, that the manour of Byker was 
* 4 Sir Ralph Lawfon's, knight,, deceafed, after of Henry Law- 
44 fon, efq. hisfon, and now of his eldeft fon, who without all 
44 queftion is baylifF by inheritance of the faid caftle, and is to 
4,4 levy the caftle-ward, cornage, &c. and other rents, iffues,. 
fines, and amerciaments belonging to the faid caftle ; and as, 
he goes on, conftable of the caftle, when that office is fettled, 






" may appoint the learned ftewards to keep courts, and then 
" the officers of the faid caftle will be complete. Befides the 
" rent above-mentioned, a great number of houfes, yards, and 
gardens, paid to it. The act of refumpfion ift of Henry 7th, 
on the rolls of parliament, has an exception in favour of Wil- 
liam Cafe, then conftable of the caftle of Newcaftle upon 

" In the 17th of James the Fir ft, 16 19, a grant was made 
" of the lite and dememes of the caftle to Alexander Stephen- 
" lbn, Efq; who was fucceeded by one Patrick Black, who 
" died and left it in the pofleflion of his wife. After that, 
" one James Langton, gent, claimed Patrick Black's right, but 
" by virtue of what is not known. 

" The liberties and privileges of the caftle extend northwards 
" to the river Tweed, and fouthward to the river of Tees. 

" It is reported, that underneath that houfe, which was 
" anciently the county gaol, was a vault which leads to the 
" caftle ; there is indeed a large door ftill to be feen, which 
c< perhaps was the entrance into it ; and Mr. George Grey, 
" the prefent pofleflbr of the houfe, told me it was certainly 
" fo, becaufe he had put down through his own floor, a bailiff's 
" rod, to the very end, and could find no bottom. 

iC A M.S. I have had often occafion to mention, gives us the 
" following account of the caftle-yard : 

" The way through the yard begins at the Caftle-gate, and 
" when I was young, there was no houfe in it but the houfe 
" of one Thomas Southern, and the houfe of one Green : 
" thefe houfes were near the gate, before you come into the 
" Caftle-yard ; and there was in the garth, a houfe wherein the 
" gaoler of the caftle dwelt, and a houfe whereinWilliamRobinfon 
" dwelt, who was deputy herald unto Norry K. at Arms : this 
" man wrote in a book the arms of all the mayors of this town, 
" from Laurentius Acton until his time ; and when I was 
" chamberlain of the town, which was about the time of 
" Sir Nicholas Cole being mayor, in 1640, it was then in the 
" town's chamber : when Trollop built the town court, he 
" borrowed it, but would never reftore it. 

" There 


These were all the houfes at that time ; but fince then Mr. 
Buhner, he took a garth behind his houfe in the fide, and built 
a (table in it, and had a garden in it; and alfo George Hayroy 
took from thence to the Moothall, and built houfes upon it; he 
was a butcher, but not a freeman; and thefe took their lands 
and houfes of Alexander Stephenfon, a Scottifh man, who came* 
in with king James; for he begged the caftle of the king. He 
was one of his clofe-ftool. This man began to build the caftle- 
gate, but it was finimed by one John Pickle, who made it in 
the faihion it is now, and kept a tavern in it: and then one 
Jordan, a Scotfman and Sword-kipper, built the houfe on the 
fouth fide of the gate, and lived in it ; and Thomas Reed, a 
Scots pedlar, took a fhop in the north fide of the gate. 

" At prefent there area good many fhops and houfes belong- 
ing to it, in and about it." This view was drawn anno 1774. 


1 HIS was one of the caitles or towers, built for the defence 
of the borders ; it Hands at the weftern extremity of the county 
near Cumberland, and on the fouthermoft bank of a rivulet 
called Tippal, a fma.ll diftance from the Roman wall. 

Blenkensop was anciently part of the barony of Nicholas de 
Bolteby, and according to a court roll for Northumberland, 
tranfcribed by Leland in his Collectanea, was held by Radul- 
phus de Blenkenfop ; but what time is not mentioned. Camden, 
in the following paifage in his Britannia, both gives fome in- 
formation as to that point, and alfo fhews that this caftle was 
not the place of refidence of the Blenkenfops, as has by fome 
been fuppofed ; his words are, , 

" Then faw we Blenkenfop, which gave name to a generous 
family, as alfo their habitation in a right pleafant country 
fouthward, which was the baronie of fir Nicholas of Bolteby, 
a baron of renowne in the time of Edward I. 

T I* 


In all likelihood the caftle was entire and garrifoned in 
the 6th of Edward VI. when, according to bifhop Littleton's 
border hiftory, the following regulations for guarding this 
diftricl were made, as it is not probable a fortrefs or caftle 
would be fuffered to fall to decay on a poll where fo ftricl a; 
was thought necefiary. 

" The order of the watches upon the middle marches made by 
the lord Wharton, lord deputy general of all the three marches, 
under my lord of Northumberland's grace, lord warden general 
of all the faid marches, in the month of October, in the fixth 
year of the reign of our fovereign lord king Edward VI." among 
which were thefe articles above alluded to. 

From Blenkenfop caftle to Therlway caftle to be watched 
nightly with two men of the inhabitants, dwelling between the 
faid two caftles. 

From Blenkenfop caftle to the Redpethe, to be watched 
nightly with two men of the inhabitants, dwelling within the 

The day watch of the lordfhip of Blenkynfop to be kept 
with one man every day at Dongham gate with the inhabitants 
of the faid lordfhip. Setters and fearchers of the fame watch, 
John Noble and Arche Story ; overfeers of the fame, Albany 
Fetherftonhalfs and Harry Walles. 

Mr. Wallis in his hiftory of Northumberland gives the 
following account and defcription of this caftle, in which 
among others he fays, this caftle was the feat of the.Blen- 

¥ Blenkensopp caftle, the feat of the antient family of the 
Blenkenfopps, of Ralph de Blenkenfopp, i king Edward 1. of 
Thomas de Blenkenfopp, 39th 42. king Edward III.- and of Wil- 
liam Blenkenfopp, 10th queen Elizabeth; who held it of the 
honour of Langley paying annually for all fervices 6s. 8d. one 
half at Martinmas and the other at Whitfontide. In the fouth-: 
weft end of Haltwefel church is the ftone. effigie of one of the. 
family, recumbent, in armour, his legs acrofs and hands ele- 


vated; the habit and attitude of a knight templer, or fuch 
as made the crufade; on which, and for the ranfom of our 
Cceur de Lion, king Richard I. fo much money was fwept 
out of the kingdom, that not one genuine coin of his is faid to 
be met with in the cabinets of the curious ; his ranfom alone 
cofting one hundred thoufand pounds in filver, equal to three 
hundred thoufands pounds of our prefent money : Gawen Blen-" 
kenfopp, D. D. is on record for being a benefactor to that re- 
nowned feminary of learning, Pembroke Hall, in Cambridge, of 
Which he was fellow. 

" The caftle of Blenkenfopp is about a mile to the fouth-eaft 
ofThirlwall caftle, on the fouther banks of the Tippal; upon an 
eminence, and overlooked by another; the weft and north-weft' 
fide of it protected by a very high cefpititious wall, and a deep; 
fofs; a vault going through it north and fouth, thirty-three 
feet in length, and in breadth eighteen feet and a half; two 
leffer ones on the north fide. The facing of the weftern wall 
has been down beyond the memory of any perfon now living 
in the neighbourhood. It has been a very ftrong building ; it 
is now in the pofieflion of John Blenkenfopp Coulfon, of Jeff- 
mont, efq." Mr. Hutchenfon who vifited this caftle fince Mr. 
Wallis, differs with him in fome particulars, and mentions 
others not taken notice of by him ; as his account of it is fhort,,- 
the whole is here tranfcribed. 

" Blenkensopp caftle is fituate on the fouthern banks of the 
brook Tippall, by the remains it appears this caftle has confifted 
of afquare tower, built on an artificial mount furrounded by an 
outward wall, at the diftance only of four paces,, of equal height" 
with interior building, defended towards the north by a very- 
deep ditch and outward mound.. The out wall towards the 
weft has been removed of late years and lays the tower open on. 
that fide ; three vaults fupport the building, one of which is 
eighteen feet wide. This caftle is the property of J. Blenkenfop 
Coulfon, efq.- has been in. the family of the Blenkenfops for 



many centuries, and held of the manor of Langley." This 
view was drawn anno 1774. 


-DRINKBURN priory was founded in the reign of king Henry 
I. and dedicated to St. Peter, by William de Bertram, baron 
of Mitford, with the approbation of his wife and his three fons. 
He placed therein black canons, or canons regular of the order 
of St. Auguftin from the monaftery de Infula, and endowed it 
with lands out of his waftes, confirmed both by his wife Hawys, 
and Roger his eldeft fon and heir. He moreover gave to it 
Thornhaugh, Forderhaugh, Papwithhaugh, Heley, and Over- 
Heley, with the woods belonging to them ; alfo a wood to the 
eaft of Heley, extending from Linckburn to the river Coquet; 
and to thefe gifts he added that of an annual prefent of twenty 
fillies out of his fiihery of Coquet.. His grandfon Roger gave 
it 140 acres of his wafte lands in Evenwood, with a large ihare 
of his waftes near Framlington ; alfo liberty to cut timber out of 
his woods for neceffary ufes, with the privilege of killing game. 
Prince Henry of Scotland, earl of Northumberland, gave to it a 
fait work at Warkworth ; he and his fon William de Warren, 
of the family of the earls Warren by the mother's fide, and 
named after them, confirmed to it all its porTefTions and privi- 
leges: they were alfo confirmed by feveral royal charters. Half 
of the manor of Nethertyrwhit belonged to it ; alfo the appro- 
priations and advowfons of Long Horfley and Felton. About 
the time of its fupprefhon it had ten canons. Its annual reve- 
nues were then valued at 681. 19s. id. Dugdale; and 77 1. ac- 
cording to Speed. It was granted to John earl of Warwick the 
fourth of Edward the VI. In the fame reign it came into the 
poflefiion of George Fen wick, efq. a commiflioner of inclofures, 
for inclofing the middle marfhes. The laft male branch, of 
whofe family was George Fenwick, efq. whofe daughter and 



heir Elizabeth married Roger Fenwick, of Stanton, Efq. One 
of her defendants, William Fenwick, of Bywell, Efq. is the 
prefent proprietor. 

This priory is fituated on the extreme point of a peninfula, 
furrounded by hills, on the north bank of the river Coquet. 
The walls of the church are pretty entire, and there are alfo fome 
remains of the dormitory, now converted into a cellar. A few 
years ago a fcheme was fet on foot for the fitting up part of the 
church for the performance of divine fervice ; and Mr. Wallis, 
in his hiftory of Northumberland, fays, a brief was obtained 
for that purpofe : it was not, however, carried into execution ; 
and this venerable pile Hill continues the habitation of owls 
and jack-daws ; one of the latter, almoft white with age, made 
its appearance when this view was drawn. 

These ruins exhibit one among the many instances wherein, 
circular and pointed arches occur in the fame building, and that 
in parts manifeftly conftructed at the fame time; which fhews, 
that about the period of its erection there was a kind of 
ftruggle between the antient mode, or faxon, and what is 
called gothic architecture, in which neither ftile then tho- 
roughly prevailed. 

The upper range of windows in this church are all circular ; 
thofe immediately under them are pointed. Two doors* one 
on the north, and the other on the fouth, have circular arches f 
richly adorned with variety of faxon ornaments, particularly that 
on the north, which has, among others, the heads of animals. 
Thefe are generally deerjied the moft ancient decorations of that 

The great tower has four pointed arches ; and others of the 
fame fhape which are fupported by many octagonal columns 
in the body of the church. 

This edifice is built cathedral-like in the form of a crofs. 
The body meafures 22 yards in length, by 13 broad. There 
have been burials here as late as the year 1745. At the eaft 
end, and in the north and fouth croiles, were chapeh, in one 

U of 


of which are diverfe fragments of coffins and human bones. Ita 
another, on the fouth, is a place for the reception of holy 
water. On the whole, though this building, except about the 
doors above-mentioned, is remarkably plain, it has a fober and 
folemn majefty not always found in buildings more highly de- 
corated : part of this, perhaps, it may owe to its romantic fitua- 
tion, which is the moft proper in the world for retirement and 
meditation. Near the fouth-weft angle of the church is a houfe 
feemingly built out of the offices of the monaftery. This houfe 
is fhewn in the plate. This view, which reprefents- the north, 
afpecl, was taken anno 1773. 

B 0^ HALL CASTLE. ( Plate I. } 

J3OTHALL was the barony of the younger branch of the 
Bertrams, barons of Mitford; Richard Bertram,, who lived about 
the time of Henry II. gave two fheaves, or two-third parts of 
the tythes of it to the monks of Tinemouth. His fon Robert 
obtained of king Richard L that this manor, with its dependen- 
cies, fhould be raifed to a barony ; and it is mentioned as fuch 
in that ancient record, remaining with the king's remem- 
brancer in the exchequer, called Tefta de Nevil, from its being 
compiled by Jollan de Nevil, who was a Juftice Itinerant in \ 
the 1 8th and 24th of Henry III. It contains the king's fees 
throughout the greater! part of England, with inquifitions of 
lands efcheated, and ferjeantries. 

This barony was held by Robert, of the king in capite, by 
the fervice of three knights fees, as his anceftors had formerly 
held it ; the faid lands being de veteri feofmento, and paying 
yearly for the caftle-guard at Newcaftle upon Tyne and for 
eornage 5I. 15s. 4d, 

Robeet was fucceeded "by his fon Roger, who procured a 
charter for free warren, for all his demefne lands here and at 
Heburn, in this county. His heirs enjoyed the barony for 



fome fuccefiions, without making any additions to its grandeur; 
"but Robert Bertram, being in the reign of king Edward III. 
eonftituted fheriff of Northumberland, and governor of New- 
caftle upon Tyne, obtained a licence of that king to make a 
caftle of his manor-houfe at Bo t hall. 

This Robert leaving no iflue male, his daughter and heir 
Helen, marrying Sir Robert Ogle, of Ogle, .Knt. transferred 
this barony to his family ;. which their fon Robert,, after the 
death of his mother, obtained, and fettled it foon after on his 
youngeft fon John, whom he furnamed Bertram- His paternal 
eftate he bequeathed on his eldeft fon Robert,, who fuffered his 
brother John quietly to enjoy the barony of Bothall; but 
Hobert his fon fucceeding to his inheritance,, with two hundred 
men forcibly feized the caftle, under pretence of its being his 
birth-right; but on a complaint* to parliament, a writ was 
ifTued to the fheriff of Northumberland, directing him to rein- 
ftate the complainant, and. commanding Robert to appear at 
Weftminfter on a certain day,, to anfwer for this mifdemeanor* 
This John Bertram, who was afterwards knighted, was feveral 
times fheriff of Northumberland, in the reign of Henry VI. 

In the conteft between the houfes of York and Lancafter, 
Sir Robert Ogle fiding with the former, and rendering them 
important fervices, was, by king Edward IV. created lord Ogle; 
which title in that family became extinct towards the latter end 
of the reign of queen Elizabeth; when the male-iffue failing 
in Cuthbert, the feventh lord Ogle, Catherine his daughter 
and coheir, afterwards Baronefs Ogle, married fir Charles 
Cavendifh, Knt. of Welbeck, afterwards earl of Ogle and duke 
©f Newcaftle, who in the civil wars embracing the royal caufe, 
and being obliged, to fly for refuge to foreign parts, his eftates 
were put under fequeftration, fome of them fold, and himfeif, 
with fix others, excepted from the general pardon: At the 
reftoration he was reinftated in his poffeffions. He leaving an 
only daughter, fhe married John Holiis, duke of Newcaftle, 
who in her right became poffeffed of this caftle and eftate. He 



being killed by a fall from his horfe, 1 5th of July, 1 7 1 1 , and 
leaving no iflue-male, this caftle, with other large eftates in 
this county, went with his only daughter to Edward earl of 
Oxford and Mortimer, to whom fhe was married anno 1713. 
It afterwards devolved to their only daughter and heir, lady 
Margaret Cavendilh Harley, who, on the nth of July, 1734, 
inarrid his grace, William, the late duke of Portland, whole 
eldeft fon, now duke of Portland, is the prefent proprietor. 

This caftle is moft delightfully fituated on an eminence, near 
the north bank of the river Wanfbeck, about three miles eaft 
of Morpeth. Its prefent remains confift of the great gateway, 
flanked on the north fide by two polygonal towers, 53 feet 
high ; and on the fouth-weft angle by a fquare turret, whofe 
height meafured 60 feet. Adjoining to this gate are fome outer 
walls, enclofing an area of an irregular figure, meafuring about 
a quarter of an acre ; within which are fome fcattered frag- 
ments of the inner apartments. Over the centre of the gate, 
on the north fide, is an efcutcheon of the arms of England, with 
fix others, three on each fide ; and on the north-eaft face of 
the wefternmoft tower are four more, all fuppofed to be thofe of 
the antient barons, its former proprietors. On the eafternmoft 
tower is only one blank efcutcheon. North weft of this build- 
ing was formerly another tower, pulled down within the 
memory of perfons now living ; part of its walls now fupport a 
cottage. Much of this venerable ruin has, as it is faid, been 
demolilhed for the fake of its materials. The fouth front of 
this gate is beautifully mantled with ivy. 

In one of the towers is a ftair-cafe, leading to the different 
Ilories into which this building is divided. On the firft, an 
elder-tree has taken root in the rubbifh, between the ribs of 
the gate, and has there grown to a confiderable fize. On the 
top of the wefternmoft tower there is alfo a fmall afh-tree, which 
grows from between the chafms in the wall: Here, overlook- 
ing the battlements, are two figures, one over the gate, the 
other on the north- weft tower; but fo defaced by time and 



weather, as to render it impofTible to diftinguiih what they were 
intended to reprefent. The grove for the portcullis is flill 
vifible. In a corner, under the gate, was fome of the iheet 
lead, which once covered this edifice; fome of it has been ufed 
in repairs of other buildings. 

The following extract is copied from a manufcript furveyy 
called the Booke of Bothool Baronrye, in Northumber- 
land, the property of his grace the duke of Portland, to 
whom that barony now belongs. It was taken the 20th; 
day of June, 1576, by Cuthbert Carnabie, Robert Maddi- 
fon and JohnLawfon, tenants of that Manor, by virtue of 
a commiffion granted by Cuthbert, lord Ogle ; and directed 
to the afore-named Cuthbert Carnabie, Robert Maddifon, 
Jacob Ogle, Efqs. Anthony Ratcliff and John Lawfon,, 
Gents, the whole five or any four, three or two of them^ 
Dated at Bothole, the 6th day of May in the faid year. 
To this manor of Bothoole belongeth ane caflell in circum- 
ference cccclxxxx foote, wharto belongeth ane caftell, greats 
chaulmer, parler, vii bedchaulmers r one galare, butterie,. 
pantrie, lardenor, kitchinge, backhoufe, brewhoufe, a ftable,, 
an court called the Yethoufe, wherein there is a prifon, a porter's 
loge, and divers faire chaulmeringe, an common ftable, and a 
towre called Blanke towre, a gardine, ane nurice, a chapel and 
an towre called Ogle's towre and paftrie with many other 
prittie beauldingis here not fpecified, ffaire gardinges and or- 
chettes wharin growes all kind of hearbes and flowres and fine 
appiles, plumbes of all kynde, pears, damfellis, nuttes, wardens, 
cherries to the blacke and reede, walnutes and alfo licores, verie 
fyne worthe by the yeare xx 1. 

When the lowe ftate of gardening at this period is confidered, 
thefe orchards and gardens may be deemed highly cultivated. 

This view, which reprefents the fouth afpedt, was drawn, 
anno 1773. 




This view reprefents the north afpecl of Both all caftle, as 
feen from a neighbouring eminence; wherein is lhewn the 
front or grand entrance with the polygonal towers, mentioned 
in the general defcription. The wood feen in the back ground 
Hopes to the water's edge, here and there fkirted by picturefque 
rocks ; and in many places the trees overhang the ftream, which 
here runs brifkly, breaking againft the huge ftones plentifully 
fcattered throughout its channel ; at once captivating the eye, 
and by its gentle murmurs fweetly foothing the ear. Indeed 
the banks of the Wandfbeck, between this place and Morpeth, 
afford a variety of fylvan fcenes, equal in beauty to any in the 

The fmall building feen over the wood, near the right-hand, 
is a fire engine for the draining of a neighbouring colliery. 
Within the enclofures, between the fpe6fator and caftle, and 
juft over the trees, appears the top of the pariih church, which 
is thus defcribed by the Rev. Mr. Wallis, in his natural hiftory 
and antiquities of Northumberland. " Near it (i. e. the caftle) 
is the parochial church. It has three handfome ifles ; the 
pulpit well placed againft the north pillar, on entering the 
chancel; the lights neat; and part of them adorned with paint- 
ing, and the walls very folemn, with fcripture fentences, in 
neat black frames; the pews but indifferent. The roof is 
covered with lead. In a fmall fteeple are three bells, one of 
them cracked ; and hard by is the veftry. At the eaft end of 
the fouth hie is a handfome tomb, within iron rails, of ala- 
bafter, over one of the barons of Ogle and Bothall, and his 
lady recumbent; their hands and eyes elevated. His lordfhip's 
head and feet reft upon the fupporters of his coat armonial; a 
lion under his feet, a chain of many links round his neck, with 
a pendent crofs. Under her ladyihip's head is a cufhion, and 
another under her feet, with two cherub-like babes lying by 



her, one on each fide, at the end of the cufhion near her face, 
each holding in its hand a taffel of the cufhion ; the head of 
one broken off. A dog by her feet, with a chain about its 
neck ; the emblem of watchfulnefs. 

" On the fouth fide of the chancel is the following mural 
genealogical table (in the old black character) of the OgieSj 
barons of Ogle and Bothall. 

" Humphrey Ogle, Efq. lived at Ogle cattle at the conqueft, 
to whom William the conqueror, by his deed without date, 
did confirm all his liberties and royalties of his manor and his 
eflate of Ogle, in as ample a manner as any of his anceftors 
enjoyed the fame before the time of the Normans. 

" From Humphry Ogle, Efq. did defcend feven lords and 
thirty knights. 

" Robert, the firft lord Ogle, married Ifabel, daughter [and 
heir of Alexander Kirkby, knight. 

" Owen, the fecond lord Ogle, married the daughter of 
fir Wm. Hilton, Knt. 

" Ralph, the third lord Ogle, married the daughter of fir 
William Gafcoign, Knt.* 

" Robert, the fourth lord Ogle, married the daughter of 
fir Thomas Lumley, Knt. 

" Robert, the fifth lord Ogle, married Mary the daughter 
of fir Cuthbert Berthram, Knt.f 

" Robert, the fixth lord Ogle, married Jane, daughter and 
heir of fir Thomas Manners, Knt. and died without iffue.J 

" Cuthbert, the feventh lord Ogle, married Katharine, 
one of the coheirs of fir Reginald Carnaby, Knt. (being brother 

* Of Gawthorp Com. Ebor. f The family pedigree communicated 

by the prefent duke of Newcaftle affirms, that he firft married Dorothy, daughter 
of fir Henry Woodrington, Knt. and afterwards Jane, daughter of fir Cuthbert 
Ratcliff, Knt. ' 

X In the fame pedigree it is faid that he married Jane, daughter and heir to fir 
Thomas Melverer, Knt, 



to Robert the fixth lord Ogle) who had two daughters, Joan 
and Katherine." This drawing was made anno 1773. 


v_;OCK.LE park tower frauds about four miles north from 
Morpeth. It was the manfion or manor-houfe, and belonged, 
tempore Edward Ift. to the Bertrams, built according to the 
fafhion of moft of the antient capital dwellings of this county ; 
that is, with a tower or reduit, to which the inhabitants might 
retire, and under which they could drive their cattle upon a 
fudden incurhon of the Scots, or of a lawlefs banditti, called 
Mofs Troopers; to both which their fituation, as borderers, 
made them frequently fubject. 

These robbers lurked about the large uncultivated heaths 
between the two countries, and indifferently made incurfions into 
either ; taking lhelter in England when they had plundered the 
Scots, and flying into Scotland with their booty taken from the 
Englifh; by which means they carried on their depredations 
with impunity ; the mutual animofity of the two nations not 
fuffering them to fee it was their common intereft to deftroy 
fuch abandoned mifcreants. The ufual object was cattle ; not 
but that they fometimes carried off men, women and children,, 
from whom they often exacted confiderable fums for ranfonu 

On account of the firft, that is, the frequent incurfions of 
the Scots, perfons inhabiting within twelve miles of Scotland 
were, by act of parliament, permitted to keep in their houfes 
crofs-bows, hand-guns, hacbuts, and demi-hakes; and againit 
the fecond, divers laws were enacted in the reign of James the 
Iff. when an act paffed for the abolifhing of hoftilities between 
the Engliih and the Scots ; both being then fubjects of the fame 
king. Notwith Handing thefe, the Mofs Troopers taking advan- 
tage of the confufion previous to the civil war, again grew 
formidable; infomuch, that in the 14th of Charles the Ifh an 
act of parliament parted purpofely for their fuppreffion ; where- 






in they are defcribed as lewd, diforderly, and lawlefs perfons; 
being thieves and robbers, bred and rending in the counties 
of Northumberland and Cumberland, commonly called Mofs 
Troopers ; taking advantage of large wafte grounds, heaths y 
and mofles. By this a6t, which was to remain in force for 
five years from Michaelmas 1662, the juftices of thefe two 
counties were authorifed to levy fums of money within their 
refpective jurifdictions; that raifed hi Northumberland not to 
exceed 500 1. per ann. nor in Cumberland 200 1. ; with which 
money they were to hire thirty able men for Northumberland, 
and twelve for Cumberland, who were to fearch for, and appre- 
hend thefe robbers, and bring them to juftice. 

To guard againft thefe and other incurfions, perfons were 
ftationed on high towers, or other eminences, who, by blowing 
a horn, alarmed the country, and gave notice of the coming 
enemy. By this fervice, called cornage, they held certain 
lands; as it feems, occafionally received pecuniary ftipends; a 
tax or impofition for cornage being formerly payable out of 
many eftates in this and other bordering counties. 

This tower, like molt of the fame kind, has machicolations, 
on the outfide ; added to which, many of them have openings 
in the ceilings over the loweft ftory, through which they could 
throw down ftones and fcalding water on an enemy, who fhould 
enter the place to fteal their cattle. 

The manfion is now converted into a farm-houfe, and is the 
property of his grace the duke of Portland, to whom it de- 
volved by the fame fucceffion as Bothall Caftle. The arms on 
the front of the building are totally obliterated ; the fupporters 
are two antelopes collared and chained. This drawing was 
made in the year 1774. 

y cum- 




J. HIS is one of a clutter of fmall rocky .iflands called the Fame 
iflands, fituated in the German ocean, about a mile and a half 
from the fhore, it is alfo called Coquet and the Houfe ifland ; 
the firft from its vicinity to the mouth of the river Coquet, 
and the latter from the buildings here reprefented. 

This little ifland, according to Bede was, in St. Cuthbert's 
time, that is, about A. D. 680, famous for councils of monks 
being held here. Tanner fays, here was, till the diflblution, a 
fmall houfe of benedictine monks, cell to Tinemouth, as par- 
cell of which priory, 4 Edw. VL this ifland was granted to John 
earl of Warwick. 

Leland, in his Collectenea, mentions from the regifter of 
Tinemouth, " one Henry a hermit of Coquet ifland buried 
there." Tradition fays, here were eleven monks. 

The building, with the church-like windows, is faid to have 
been the oratory, but more likely the monaftery above-men- 
tioned ; erected, probably, on its fcite. The traces of ruined 
walks fhew there were diverfe erections adjoining to, or near it. 
It is now fitted up for a dwelling- houfe, and has been occa- 
sionally inhabited by perfons tending iheep or employed to 
collect fea-weed. The other building was a fort, and is con- 
verted to a light-houfe ; the irons feen on its top being con- 
trivances for holding fire. 

This ifland was made a place of arms for the Royalifts in the 
time of Charles 1ft. when it was garrifoned by two hundred 
men, with feven pieces of ordnance ; it was neverthelefs taken 
by the Scots in 1643, w ^ tn m uch booty of ammunition and 

The ifland contains about fix or feven acres of rich pafture 
land, and is therefore often rented for the feeding of fheep, as 


J 1 ere 


•well as for the convenience of gathering fea weed. Leland, in 
Tiis Itinerary, vol. 6. p. 67, fays, « The ifle of Coquet flandeth 
upon a very good vayne of fe coles, and at the ebbe, men digge 
m the fhore by the clives, and find very good." 

The ftone coffin fhewn in the drawing, is faid to be that in 
which St. Cuthbert was originally buried, it now lies within 
the walls of the light-houfe, nearly in that part oppofite the 
figures. This view was drawn anno 1778, 


DuNSTANBROUGH, or Dunftanburgh caftle, with th* 
manor, was the feat and eftate of Edmund earl of Lancafter, a 
younger fon of king Henry III. From him it devolved to his 
fon and heir Thomas, who in the 9th of Edward II. obtained a 
licence from the king to crenelate or fortify his manor-houfe ; 
•and accordingly about that time built this caftle. This earl foon 
-after entered into an affociation with divers of the chief nobility 
of the kingdom for the expulfion of Piers Gaveftone, who had 
particularly infulted him, by giving him the nick-name of the 
Stage-player : he was chofen general of the malecontents ; but 
by the interpofition of two cardinals, exprefsly difpatched from 
Rome for that purpofe, was reconciled to the king in the 10th 
year of his reign, This reconciliation was of no long con- 
tinuance, for within a few years he again appeared in arms at 
the head of thofe barons who were confederated, in order to 
remove the Spenfers; and having aflembled a confiderable force 
at St. Albans, he fent the biihops of Ely, Hereford, and Chi- 
chefter, to the king, who was then at London, requiring him 
to banifh the Spenfers, and to give to him and his affociates 
letters of indemnity. The king not only refufed thefe demands, 
but raifed a powerful army, giving his generals, Edmund earl 
of Kent and John earl of Surry, orders to purfue ana* arrefl 
him and his followers. 



The carl, who had retired to his qaftle at PontefracT:, in 
Yorkfhire, was advifed by feveral of the barons of his party to 
march to Dunftanbrough caflle; but he, fearing he mould in 
that cafe be thought to hold intelligence with the Scots, 
refuted ; neverthelefs, on fir Robert Clifford threatening him, 
in cafe he perfifted, to kill him with his own hands, he joined 
them: but near Burrowbridge, in Yorkfhire, 


met and 

defeated by William lord Latimer, and fir Andrew Hercla, of 
-Carlifle, at the head of a body of the country people, he and 
divers of his followers were taken prifoners, and conducted to 
his caftle at Pontefract ; in which town the king, with the two 
Spenfers, then lay; whither when the earl was brought, he 
was in derifion called king Arthur. The circumftances- attend- 
ing his taking, trial and execution, are thus recorded in an 
ancient chronicle, written in French by William de Pakington,. 
clerk and treafurer to prince Edward, fon to Edward III. tran.. 
Hated by Leland, and printed in his Collectanea ; which, as 
it ftrongly marks the ferocity of thofe times, is here quoted at 

" And then (i. e. after the defeat) went Thomas Lancaftre 
into a chapel, denying to rendre hym felf , to Harkeley, and 
faid, looking on the crucifix, good Lord I rendre myfelf to 
thee, and put me yn to thy mercy.'* 

Then they toke of his cote armures, and put oh hym a 
ray cote, or one goune of his mennes lyverys, and carried hym 
by water to York, where they threw balles of dyrte at him. 
And the refidew of the barons part were purfued from place to 
place ; and to the chirch hold was no reverence gyven, and the 
father purfued the funne, and the funne the father. 

The king hering of this difcumfiture, cam with the Dif- 
penfars and other nobles of his adherentes to Ponfradte. 

Syr Andrew of Herkeley brought Thomas of Lancafter to 
Pontfracte to the kinge, and there was put in a towre that he 
had newly made towards the abbey, and after juged in the 
haule fodenly by thes juftices, fyr Hugh Difpenfar the father, 



lyr Aimer Counte of Pembroke, fyr Edmunde counte of Kent, 
fyr John de Britoyne, and fyr Robert Malmethorp, that pro- 
nouncid his jugement. 

Then Thomas Lancaftre fayd, fhaul I dy with owt anfwer. 

Then certain Gafcoyne toke him away, and put a pillid 
broken hatte, or hoode, on 'his hedde, and fet him on a lene 
white jade with owt bridil, and he then cryed thus, " King of 
Heven, have mercy on me, for the King of Hearth nous ad 
querpi*. And thus he was carryid, fome throwing pelottes of 
dyrt at him, and having a frere precher for his confefTor with 
him, on to a hylle with owt the toune, where he knelid doune 
towards the efte, oil tylle one Hughin de Mufton cauflid him 
to turne his face towarde Scotlande; wher kneeling, a villayne 
of London cut of his hedde, 11 Cal. Aprilis, anno d. 1321. 
And after the prior and the monkes required his body, and got 
it of the king, and buried it on the right-hand of the altare. 
The fame day were hangid, drawn and quarterid, thes noble 
men at PontifracT:, fir William Tucket, fir William Fitz -Wil- 
liam, fyr Warine Lifle, fyr Henry Bradeburne, fyr William 
Cheney, barons, and John Page, efquire." The fentence of 
the earl of Lancafter was, that he fhould be drawn, hanged 
and beheaded; but, in regard to his birth, the ignominious 
part of it was remitted. In ; the reign of king Richard II. he 
was canonized, his picture fet up in St. Paul's church, and the 
hill, on the north-eaft fide of the town, whereon he fuffered, 
named St. Thomas's hill. 

A MS. account of the army under Edward II. anno 1322, 
by Roger de Waltham, keeper of the wardrobe ; names, Richard 
de Elmfdon, as then conftable of this caftie, when he fent 68 
Hoblers, part of his -garrifon, to attend the king in his expe- 
dition to Scotland, of whom 18 were armed men, but not 
mounted, their wages were fix-pence per diem, 

* That is, has abandoned me, ' 

Z The 


The fame year, the privy feal being accidentally loft, man- 
dates were iffued by the king, at Br-idlyngton, on the 15th 
October, to the conftables of Dunftanbrough, Knarefborough, 
Scarborough, Alnwick, Norham and Bern caftles, forbidding 
them to give faith to any letter, fealed with it, the feal being 
iliortly after found, public notice was given thereof, on the 
27th of the fame .month* The inftruments are in Rymer*s 

His brother, Henry earl of Laneafter, by a petition to Parlia- 
ment, obtained , a reftitution of all the figniories, honors, and 
lands, and for which he did homage : thefe he bequeathed to 
his fon Henry, who leaving only two daughters and coheirs, 
Maud and Blanch, this caftle, on the divifion, came to the 
latter. She married John of Gaunt, earl of Richmond, who 
.fhortly after, by the death of her filler, became porTefTed of the 
whole eftate, as well as the dukedom of Laneafter, in the 
aright of his wife. The caftle continued -in the Lancaftrian 
family till the reign of Henry VI. when, after the battle of 
Hexham field, fir Peter -de BrefTey, and five hundred French- 
men taking fhelter in it, were befieged by Ralph lord Ogle, 
Edmund and Richard <le (Trailer, John Manners, and Gilbert 
de Errington, partizans of the houfe of York. After a vigorous 
defence all the garrifon, except fir Peter, were made prifoners, 
jmd the caftle, which had been much damaged in the fiege, 
was totally dismantled. From authentic records it appears to 
have belonged to the crown the 10th of Elizabeth, but was 
granted the 6th of February, in the 2 2d of James I. to fir 
William Grey, baron of Wark, and confirmed by king William 
III. 20th of December, 1694. It is now the property of the 
right honourable the earl of Tankervilie. 

A MS. \a the library of Thomas Aftle, Efq. formerly be- 
longing or written by Yelverton, Efq. among other 

royal caftles and houfes temp. James Ift. has the following entry 

refuecting this caftle, — Dunftanborough, keeper of the 



•.caftle, fee 20 1. per annum, this was before the grant to fit 
'William Grey. 

Mr. Wallis, in his hiftoryof the antiquities of Northumber- 
land, defcribes it in the following words: " It (lands on an 
eminence of feveral acres, (loping gently to the fea, and edged 
to the north and north-weft with precipices, in the form of a 
crefcent ; by the weftern termination of which are three natural 
(lone pyramids of a confiderable height, and by the eaftern one 
an opening in the rocks made by the fea, under a frightful 
precipice, called Rumble Churn, from the breaking of the 
waves in tempeftuous weather and high feas. Above this is 
the main entrance, and by it the ruin of the chapel : at the 
fouth-weft corner is the draw-well, partly filled up. It is built 
with whin and rag done." In the additions to Camden it is 
recorded, that in one year there grew within the walls of this 
caftle 240 Winchester buihels of corn, befides feveral loads of 
hay. It is likewife there mentioned, that a kind of fpar is 
found hereabouts called Dunftanbrough diamonds, faid to rival 
thofe of St. Vincent's Rock, near Briftol. This drawing, 
which reprefents the fouth-weft afpecl, was made anno 1773. 


OO exact an account of this curious relique of ancient folitary 
devotion, is already publifhed in the pleafing ballad of the Her- 
mit of Warkworth*, that it might be fufficient to refer the 
reader to that poem, and to the curious appendix fubjoined to 
it; but as there has lately fallen into my hands a very minute 
epiftolary defcription of this Hermitage, I (hall here infert it as 
a fupplement to what has been colle6led by the editor of the 
ballad above-mentioned : at the fame time alluring the reader, 

* The Hermit of Warkworth, a Northumberland ballad, in three cantos, 
^771, 4to. written by the ingenious Dr. Percy, wherein the beautiful Simplicity 
«f our ancient Englilh poetry is moft happily imitated and preferyed. 



that I can myfelf vouch for the truth of the defcription given 
below, having obferved upon the fpot all, or moil of the par- 
ticulars therein mentioned. F. G. 

An Extract of a Letter from Newcaftle-upon-Tyne, dated the 

6th of September, 1771. 

****** I shall now, in compliance with your requefl r 
attempt to give you a defcription of the ruins of the ancient 
Hermitage at Warkworth, which the very interefting ballad 
lately publilhed on that fubject, excited in me fo great a defne 

to fee. 

As I went from Newcaflle, I quitted the great northern road 
at a fmall village called Felton, (which ftands about mid-way 
between Morpeth and Alnwick) and had a moll; romantic ride 
for the rapft part down a beautiful rocky vale, worne by the 
current of the river Coquet, which afforded a fucceffion of very 
picturefque fcenes. 

I was much pleafed with the fituation of Warkworth itfelf; 
particularly with the cattle, which, although in ruins, is a fine 
monument of ancient grandeur, being one of the proud 
fortrefTes, which heretofore belonged to the noble houfe of 
Percy, and from them defcended to the prefent duke and dut- 
chefs of Northumberland; who, together with the princely 
poffemons, have inherited the generofity and magnificence of 
that great family. 

Warkworth caflle deferves itfelf a particular defcription : I 
ftiall, therefore, at prefent only obferve, that it is very boldly 
fituate on an eminence, and overlooks the river Coquet, where 
it difcharges its waters into the fea, and almoft waihes an ifland 
of the fame name ; which from its circular form, eafy diftance 
from the fhore, and a little antique tower, the remains of a 
fmall monaftic edifice erected upon it, is a molt beautiful object 
fcen from every part of the coaft. 


rr i i "i 



JEfermitiiae WarkwortA 


From the caftle we afcended not more than half a mile up 
the river, before we came to the Hermitage ; which is probably 
the beft preferred and moft intire now remaining in thefe king- 
doms. It ftill contains three apartments, all of them hollowed 
in the folid rock, and hanging over the river in the moft pic- 
turefque manner imaginable, with a covering of ancient hoary- 
trees, reliques of the venerable woods, in which this fine folitude 
was anciently embowered. As the Hermitage, with all its 
ftriking peculiarities, is very exactly defcribed in the ballad of 
the Hermit of Warkworth, I might be content to tranfcribe 
the defcriptive part of that poem: but as you have infilled 
upon my relating to you what I faw myfelf, I fhall endeavour 
to obey you. The cave contains three apartments; which, by 
way of diftinction, I will venture to call the chapel, facrifty, 
and antichapel. Of thefe, the chapel is very entire and perfect : 
but the two others have fufFered by the falling down of the rock 
at the weft end. By this accident a beautiful pillar, which for- 
merly flood between thefe two apartments, and gave an elegant 
finifhing to this end of the facred vaults, was, within the memory 
of old people, deftroyed. The chapel is no more than 18 feet long, 
nor more than 7 and a half in width and height; but is modelled 
and executed in a very beautiful ftyle of gothic architecture. The 
fides are ornamented with neat octagon pillars, all cut in the 
folid rock ; which branch off into the cieling, and forming little 
pointed arches, terminate in groins. At the eaft end is a 
handfome plain altar, to which the prieft afcended by two 
fteps : thefe, in the courfe of ages, have been much worn away 
through the foft yielding nature of the ftone. Behind the altar 
is a little nich, which probably received the crucifix, or the 
pix. Over this nich is ftill feen the faint outline of a glory. 

On the north fide of the altar is a very beautiful gothic win- 
dow, executed like all the reft, in the living rock. This 
window tranfmitted light from the chapel to thefacrifty; or 
what elfe fhall we call it, being a plain oblong room which ran 
parallel with the chapel, fomewhat longer than it, but not fo 

A a wide* 


wide. At the eaft end of this apartment are ftill feen the re- 
mains of an altar, at which mafs was occafionally fung, as well 
as in the chapel. Between it and the chapel is a fquare perfo- 
ration, with fome appearance of bars, or a lattice, thro' which 
the hermit might attend confeflion, or behold the elevation of 
the hoft without entering the chapel. Near this perforation, 
is a neat door cafe opening into the chapel out of this fide-room 
or facrifty, which contains a benching cut in the rock, whence 
is feen a moft beautiful view up the river, finely over-hung 
with woods. Over the door-cafe, within the chapel, is carved 
a fmall neat efcutcheon, with all the emblems of the pafnon, fc. 
the crofs, the crown of thorns, the nails, the fpear and the 

On the fouth fide of the altar is another window, and below 
is a neat cenotaph, or tomb, ornamented with three human 
figures elegantly cut in the rock. The principal figure repre- 
ients a lady lying along, ftill very intire and perfect ; over her 
breaft hovers, what probably was an angel, but much defaced ; 
and at her feet is a warrior erect, and perhaps originally in a 
praying poflure ; but he is likewife multilated by time. At her 
feet is alfo a rude fculpture of a bull's or ox's head ; which the 
editor of the ballad not unreafonably conjectures to have been 
the lady's creft. This was, as he obferves, the creft of the 
Widdrington family, whole caftle is but five miles from this 
Hermitage. It was alfo the antient creft of the Nevilles, and 
of one or two other families in the north. 

On the fame fide is another door cafe, and near it an excava- 
tion to contain the holy water. Over both the door cafes are 
ftill feen the traces of letters, veftiges of two antient infcrip- 
tions; but fo much defaced, as to be at prefent illegible. I 
muft refer you to the poem for a further account of them. 
This door opens into a little veftibule, containing two fquare 
niches, in which the hermit fat to contemplate ; and his view 
from hence was well calculated to infpire meditation. He looked 
down upon the river which wafhes the foot of the Hermitage, 



and glides away in a conftant murmuring lapfe ; and he might 
thence have taken oecafion, like the author of the night 
thoughts, to remind fome young thoughtlefs vifrtant r 

" Life glides away, Lorenzo! like a ftream, 
*' For ever changing, unperceiv'd the change. ! 
*' In the fame ftream none ever bath'd him twice; 
*" To the fame life none ever twice awoke. 
" We call the ftream the fame, the fame we think 
*' Our life, tho' ftill more rapid in its flow ; 
" Nor mark the much irrevocably laps'd, 
" And mingled with the fea." 

Over the inner door, within the veftibule, hangs another 
cfcutcheon with fome fculpture, which we took for the repre* 
fentation of a gauntlet ; perhaps it was the founder's arms ot 
creif. On the outward face of the rock, near the fmall vef* 
tibule above-mentioned, is a winding ftaircafe cut alfo in the 
living ftone, and leading through a neat arched tloor cafe in 
the fame, up to the top of the cliff which joins the level of the 
ancient park ; and here was planted the hermit's orchard. This 
has long fmce been deftroyed; but cherry-trees propagated from, 
his plantations are ftill fcattered over the neighbouring thicke^* 
His garden was below at the foot of the hill, as we were in** 
formed ; -and indeed fome ftragling flowers and one little foiitary 
goofeberry bufh, which ftill grows out of a cleft in the rock,, 
xonhrm the tradition. 

As all the apartments above-defcribed feem to have been 
appropriated to facred ufes, you will naturally inquire where 
was the dwelling of the hermit, at leaft of his fucceffors ? This 
was a fmall fquare building, erected at the foot of the cliffy 
that contains the chapel. It conhfted of one fingle dwelling* 
room, with a bed-chamber over it; and a fmall kitchen adjoin- 
ing ; which is now fallen in and covered with earth ; but the 
ruins of the oven ftill mark its fituation, and {hew that fome 
of the inhabitants of this hermitage did not always diflike good 



This little building, erected below the chapel, being cam- 
pofed of materials brought together by human hands, has long 
fince gone to ruin : whereas the walls of the chapel itfelf, beifrg 
as old as the world, will, if not purpofely deftroyed, probably 
laft as long as it, and continue to amufe the lateft pofterity. It 
gave me particular pleafure to obferve, that the prefent noble 
proprietors have thought this curiofity not unworthy their 
attention, and have therefore beftowed a proper care to have it 
kept clean and neat: have cleared the hermit's path, which 
was choaked up, by the river's fide; having reftored his well 
(a fmall bubbling fountain of clear water, which iffues from the 
adjoining rock) ; and have renewed the wood by new planta- 
tions at the top of the cliff, where the trees have been thinned 
or deftroyed by time. 

In this delightful folitude, fo beautiful in itfelf, and fo vene- 
rable for its antiquity, you will judge with what pleafure I 
perufed the very amufing and interefting tale of the Hermit of 
Warkworth : having the whole fcene before me, and fancying I 
was prefent at the hermit's tender relation. And this leads me 
to your laft query : what foundation the author of the poem 
had for his ftory, which he gives as founded on truth r By all 
the inquiries I could make in the neighbourhood, it is the 
received tradition, that the founder of this hermitage was one 
of the Bertram family, who were anciently lords of Bothall caf- 
tle, and had great pofTeftions in this county. He is alfo thought 
to be the fame Bertram, who having built Brinkburn abbey, 
and Brinklhaugh chapel higher up the river, at laft retired to 
end his life in this fequeftered valley. But the editor has given 
reafons, why he thinks the hermitage was founded at a later 
period than thofe buildings, by another of the fame name and 
family. It is alfo the univerfal tradition, that he impofed his 
penance upon himfelf to expiate the murder of his brother. As 
for the lady, I could not find that any thing particular is remem- 
bered concerning her; but the elegant fculpture of her figure 

. on 


on the tomb, and the creft at her feet, feem fufficiently to war- 
rant the ftory of the ballad. 

The old record of the endowment of this hermitage by the 
Percy family, which the editor has printed at the end of his 
poem, is a curiofity very fingular in its kind. When I perufed 
it, I could not help fmiling at the article of the trinity draught 
of fifh, to be taken oppofite to the chapel, which was to be 
the hermit's perquifite every funday. It was, I aflure you, no 
contemptible perquifite : for there is a very rich falmon fifheiy 
in this river belonging to the duke and dutchefs of Northum- 
berland ; and I was told, that at one fmgle draught, this fum- 
mer, more than 300 fifh had been taken oppofite to the Her- 

I lhall conclude my long, tedious defcription, with a ftanza 
from Spenfer ; which, if you will pardon a few alterations, will 
give you a pretty exact picture of the place. 

A little lonely Hermitage there flood 

Down in a dale, hard by a river's fide, 
Beneath a mofTy cliff, o'erhung with wood ; 

And in the living rock, there clofe befide, 
A holy chapel, ent'ring we defcrib'd; 

Wherein the hermit duly wont to fay 
His lonely prayers, each morn and even tide : 

Thereby the cryftal ftream did gently play, 
Which thro' the woody vale came foiling down alway. 


HIS caftle ftands in the fouth-eaft part of the ifland, on the 
top of a conical rock, which rifes fuddenly out of the marfh 
with which it is furrounded. At what time it was erected, or 
who was the builder, does not appear among the numerous 

* I have been afTured, that more than four hundred fifh, chiefly falmon, falmon 
trouts, and gilts, have been taken at one draught between the Hermitage and the 
fca, which is about two miles diftant. 

B b writers 


writers who have defcribed this ifland ; at leaft I have not been 
able to meet with it, after having diligently fearched every book 
wherein it might reafonably be hoped to find it. 

Camden mentions it, fo that it is evidently as old as his 
time. Probably it has been the fcene of but few remarkable 
events ; hiftory being nearly as filent in that refpect, as it is 
concerning its origin. The firft time it occurs, is in the hiftory 
of the civil war, temp. Charles I. when the following account 
of the taking of it by the parliamentary forces is given, p. 350, 
in a book called God on the mount, or a parliamentary chro~ v 
niele, printed anno 1644, in thefe words ; 

" In may 1643, leaving Barwick in a good pofture of defence 
for king and parliament, and a man of war to ride before the 
town as they defired, we fet fail for the Holy ifland (fix miles 
from Barwick) and fummoned the caftle there, for king and 
parliament; but being denied by the captain, we let fly a broad- 
fide at it, and were anfwered again in our own language ; the 
cannons thus playing awhile on both fides, and yet no hurt 
done, we running in our mips under the caftle, and landing an 
hundred men, they came to a parley, and yielded, upon con- 
ditions to have paid unto them a years pay due to them from 
his majeftie, which we promifed to do, and fo became mafters 
of that impregnable caftle of Holy ifland (which 40 men may 
keep againft 4000, without any blood) this caftle we fortified 
with our men and fome of the old foldiers, who refufed to 
fight againft us." Rufh worth, mentions an order of the houfe 
of commons, may 7, 1646, for fending forces thither, when 
this reafon was afligned, " It being of confequence to the 
northern parts of the kingdom." Probably, this confequence 
arofe more from the convenience of its harbour than the ftrength 
of the caftle. 

In the year 1647, one ca ptain Batton was governor of the 
ifland for the parliament ; to whom fir Marmaduke Langdale, 
after the taking of Berwick, wrote the following letter, but 
without fuccefs, The letter, together with the captain's re- 



fufal, was tranfmitted to the houfe of commons, for which 
they voted their thanks to captain Batton, and that he fhould 
be continued governor of the place. 

" Sir, you have the good opinion of the counties to be a. 
fober difcreet man amongil them, which emboldeneth me (a 
ftranger to you) to propofe (that which every man in his duty 
to God and the king ougth to perform) the vaii of thefe horrid 
defigns plotted by fome, that men may run and read the mifery 
and thraldom they intend upon the whole nation. It is be- 
lieved by many that know you, that you are fenfible of the 
imprifonment of his majefty, and the violation of all our laws. 
If you pleafe to conhder, the ends being changed, perhaps, for 
which you firft engaged, and comply with the king's intereft 
by keeping the fort now in poffeffion for the king's ufe, I will 
engage myfelf to fee all the arrears due to yourfelf and the 
foldiers duly paid, and to procure his majefty 's favour for the 
future; and that I only may receive fome fatisfaclion from you., 
that this motion is as really accepted, as intended by 

Berwick, April 30, Your humble fervant, 


Holy ifland does not appear ever to have fallen into the 
hands of the royalifts, for it continued in the pofTeffion of the 
parliamentarians, anno 1648, when it was y as may be feen in 
Rufhworth, relieved " with necefTaries" by colonel Fenwick's horfe 
and fome dragoons. From that time nothing memorable feems 
to have been tranfacted here till the rebellion in the year 1715, 
when the feizure of this caflle was planned and performed by 
two men only ; in which exploit fuch policy and courage were 
exerted as would have done them much honour, had they been 
employed in a better caufe, The following particulars of the 
ftory were communicated by a gentleman, whofe father was an 
eye witnefs to the fa£ts, and well knew both the parties. < 



One Launcelot Errington, a man of an ancient and refpecT:- 
able family in Northumberland, and of a bold and enterprifing 
fpirit, entered into a confpiracy for feizing this caftle for the 
pretender, in which it is faid, he was promifed afliitance, not 
only by Mr. Fofter, the rebel general then in arms, but alfo by 
the mafters of feveral French privateers. At this time the 
garrifon confuted of a ferjeant, a corporal, and ten or twelve 
men only. In order to put his fcheme in execution, being well 
known in that country, he went to the caftle, and, after fome 
difcourfe with the ferjeant, invited him and the reft of the 
men, who were not immediately on duty, to partake of a treat 
on board the fhip of which he was marter^ then lying in the 
harbour: this being unfufpectedly accepted of, hefo well plied 
his guefts with brandy, that they were foon incapable of any 

These men being thus fecured, he made fome pretence for 
going on fhore; and with Mark Errington, his nephew, re- 
turning again to the caftle, they knocked down the centinel, 
furprifed and turned out an old gunner (the corporal and two 
other foldiers, being the remainder of the garrifon), and 
Shutting the gates, hoifted the pretender's colours as a fignal 
of their fuccefs, anxioufly expecting the promifed fuccours. No 
reinforcement coming, but, on the contrary, a party of the 
king's troops arriving from Berwick, they were obliged to 
retreat over the walls of the caftle, among the rocks, hoping 
to conceal themfelves under the fea-weeds till it was dark, and 
then, by fwimming to the main land, to make their efcape. 
But the tide rifing, they were obliged to fwim, when the fol- 
diers firing at Launcelot, as he was climbing up a rock, 
wounded him in the thigh. Thus difabled, he and his nephew 
were taken and conveyed to Berwick gaol, where they continued 
till his wound was cured. During this time he had digged a 
burrow quite under the foundations of the prifon, depofiting 
the earth taken out in an old oven. Thro' this burrow he and 



his nephew, with divers other prifoners, efcaped ; but moil pf 
the latter were foon after retaken. 

The two Erringtons, however, had the good fortune to 
make their way to the Tweed-fide, where, finding the cuftom- 
houfe boat, they rowed themfelves over, and afterwards turned, 
it adrift. , From hence they purfued their journey to Bambo- 
rough caftle, near which they were concealed nine days in a 
pea-ftack ; a relation who refided in the caftle fupplying them 
with provifion: at length, travelling in the night by fecret 
paths, they reached Gatefheade-houfe, near Newcaftle, where 
they were fecreted till they procured a paflage from Sunderland 
to France. 

A reward of 500 1. was now offered to any one who would 
apprehend them; notwithftanding which, Launcelot was fo 
daring as foon after to come into England, and even to vifit 
fome of his friends in Newgate. After the fuppreffion of the 
rebellion, when every thing was quiet, he and his nephew 
took the benefit of the general pardon; and he returned to 
Newcaftle, where he died about the year 1 746, as it is faid, of 
grief at the victory of Cullodem The caftle is at prefent 
commonly garrifoned by a detachment of invalids from Berwick*, 

This plate ihews the caftle as it appears from the rocks, a 
fmall diftance eaft of the ruins of the monafteryi The walls 
towards the right-hand feem to be the remains of fome fort, 
their diftance being rather too great from the monaftery to 
have ever been a part of it ; they are, however, now fo much 
decayed as hardly even to furnifh fufhcient grounds for con-* 
je&ure. This view was drawn anno 1773. 


HULNE ABBET. ( Plate L ) 

ULNE abbey was the fir ft monaftery of carmelite friars in. 
thefe kingdoms. The account of its foundation is thus given 
by ancient writers. Among the britifh barons who went to the 
holy wars in the reign of king Henry III, were William de 

C c Vefcy, 


Vefcy, lord of Alnwick, and Richard Gray, two eminent chief- 
tains in the chriftian army; led by curiofity or devotion, they 
went to vifit the friars of mount Carmel, and there unex- 
pectedly found a countryman of their own, one Ralph Fref- 
born, a Northumberland man, who had diftinguifhed himfelf 
in a former crufade, and in confequence of a vow had after- 
wards taken upon him the monaftic profefhon in that folitude 
When Vefcy and Gray returned to England, they ftrongly im- 
portuned the fuperior of the carmelites to let their countryman 
accompany them home; which was at length granted, upon 
condition that they would found a monaftery for carmelites in 
their own country. Soon after their return, Frefborn, mindful 
of their engagement, began to look out for a place for their 
convent. After examining all the circumjacent folitudes, he at 
length fixed upon the prefent fpot, induced, it is faid, by the 
great refemblance which the adjoining hill bore to mount Car- 
mel ; and, indeed, whoever looks into Maundrel's travels will 
find that the draught of that mountain given in his book bears 
a ftrong likenefs to this before us. 

The above William de Vefcy gave a grant of the ground, 
confifting of twelve or thirteen acres, in his park of Holne ; 
but Frefborn is faid to have erected the buildings himfelf. The 
foundation was laid about A. D. 1240, and Frefborn, gathering 
a proper number of friars, became the nrfl prior of the order 
and having prefided here with great reputation of fanctity, at 
length died, and was buried in the monaftery about the year 

This grant of William de Vefcy was afterwards confirmed, 
and enlarged with new privileges, by his fons John and Wil- 
liam; and when, in the beginning of the next century, their 
barony came into the pofTefnon of the Percy family, their char- 
ters were confirmed by the fuccefftve lord Percies of Alnwick ; 
fome of whom gave additional marks of favour to this abbey, 
as appears by their charters, from which the following particu- 
lars are extracted ; 




Confirmation by Henry de Percy, fon and 5 th of the Idcs 
heir of the lord de Percy, lord of Alnewyk, of ^ I ^°- 
of a charter granted by the lord John de Vefcy, p of 

and confirmed by his brother William by his Alnwyk 

charter, dated 1 6th June 120.... By which to 

charter the faid lord John, for the falvation of The Fl 7 ers 
his foul, &c. did grant to the fryers of the or- °At>be ^ 

der of the bleffed Mary of mount Carmel, in Confirmation 
his foreft of Alnwyk, all their yard or clofe of their charters, 
(area) lying in Holne, with the oratory and and further 
buildings built therein, or to be built, as it lies S rants to theffl - 
enclofed together in length and breadth within certain bounds 
on every fide, which the lord William de Vefcy his father firft 
permitted them to inhabit, and put them in pofTeffion of, to 
hold to the faid fryers of him and his heirs, in pure and free 
alms, with free ingrefs and egrefs to them and theirs, and all 
others coming to the faid place out of devotion, through all 
the ways and paths antiently ufed through any part of his 
foreft leading to any neighbouring or remoter towns, except 
through his inclofures; with liberty to the faid fryers to take 
wood in the faid foreft for their neceffary ufes for various pur- 
pofes, and in the manner therein fpecified, with a fpecial cart- 
way (chiminagium) for themfelves, or others with them, di- 
rectly through the middle gate through Filberthaugh, paffing 
acrofs to the park pale by a ftone quarry (fcala) : but in cafe 
they cannot pafs through Filberthaugh, by reafon of the over- 
flowing of the water, they may pafs freely on the other fide of 
the water of Alne as ufual. — Alfo that the faid fryers ihall have 
free fifhing in the water of Alne, as well within the park as 
without, and liberty to dig ftone, &c. 

And that they lhall have a mill to be built on their clofe to 
grind their corn without mulcture ; with a watercourfe to run 
from the great water of Alne, through a cut dug by them for" . 
this purpofe, together with a pond to receive the faid water- 


courfe by them inclofed ; but their miller is yearly to make oath 
before the bailiff of the faid lord not to admit any ftranger to 
grind his corn there. 

Also free pafture in the faid foreft and park for fix oxen, 
two horfes, and two affes, to be kept by a keeper between the 
water of.Alne and the north fide (coftera) of the park, in 
length from their garden towards the well to the pond. Alfo 
all wild bees, with their fruits of honey and wax, found in 
Walfoe and in Holne, as well in the park as in the foreft, for 
the perpetual fupport of the light of their church, with a 
provifion againft the faid fryers being defrauded of the faid bees, 
wax, and honey by the forrefters and ihepherds there. 

Also liberty to the faid fryers, for their fupport yearly, to 
buy a laft of herrings in the market of Alnmoutb, as the 
burgeffes there buy them in times of taking herrings and other 
fifh neceflary for their fupport, and all other things to be fold 

in the faid borough of which they lhall have need. They 

fhall alfo have yearly out of the lord's coney-warren of Hough- 
ton one trufs of at Eafter, and another at the affump- 

tion of the bleffed Mary; and certain quantities of rufhes 
(cirpos) and twelve loads of broom (fpartum) to cover their 

houfes in the manner therein mentioned. And of another 

charter of the faid John de Vefcy, confirmed by the faid Wm. 
de Vefcy by his charter, dated 16th June 1294, by which the 
faid John, for the good of his foul, &c. grants to the faid 
fryers of Holne twenty marks fterling in pure and free alms, to 
be taken by the faid fryers and their fucceffors every year out of 
the farms of the faid John de Vefcy's mills of Alnwyk, for 
their living, fupport, and other neceffary maintenance, at the 
feafts of St. Martin in winter, and Pentecoft ; for the payment 
whereof, the farmers of the faid mills fhall do fealty to the 
faid fryers ; and that the faid lord's own bailiff ihould diftrain 
the farmers for the payment thereof to the faid fryers 

A fur« 


A further confirmation by fir Henry de Percy 

(fubfcribed under the above) of the abovemen- t ' g • 

tioned grants and confirmations by John and Sr Henry de Per- 

Wm. de Vefcy, with an additional grant from cy to the fryers 

the faid fir Henry to the faid fryers of Holne ofHolne, fur- 

; . .i "» r rr * j i ther confirma- 

and their iucceilors, in pure and perpetual . : , ,, 

x J ; r tion or the above 

alms, of free pafture for two cows in his wood written charters 
of Holne for ever ; and that they fhall have and additional 
in the number of ten heads, the abovemen- grant of paftuxe 
tioned charter of John de Vefcy granted to or 2 cows " 
them, two cows, inftead of the two affes there- 
in mentioned ; fo that in the whole they fhall have in the faid 
wood twelve heads of cattle. 

At length Henry Percy, fourth earl of Northumberland, built 
in this abbey a fine tower as a place of refuge for the monks to 
retire to it in times of danger ; for in the fudden irruptions of 
the borderers of both nations, thofe rude men fpared no places or 
perfons, however facred, but laid all wafle with fire and fword. 
This tower having been preferved more entire than any other 
part of the abbey, has been lately repaired by the prefent noble 
poneffors, their graces the duke and duchefs of Northumber- 
land, who have fitted it up in the old gothic ftyle, and have 
fhewn an admirable tafte both in the choice and adoption of 
the ornaments. Near it, in ancient Englifh, is this curious 
infcription : 

' XX 

!_£_! n the year of Crift Ihu nlcccc 1 1 1 1 vi 1 1 

This towr was builded by Sir hen Percy , t 

The fourth Erie of Northuberlad of gret hon & worth 

That efpoufed Maud ye good lady full of virtue and bewt 

Daughtr. to Sr william harb'rt right noble and hardy 

Erie of Pembrock whofe foulis god fave 

And with his grace cosarve ye bilder of this tower. 

. The annual value of this houfe is not given by Tanner, who 
fays the fite of the houfe was granted 6th of Eliz. to Thosi. 

D d Reve, 


Reve, Wm. Ryvet, &c. Thefe ruins afford a curiofity of the 
vegetable kind, a tree growing round a large fragment of a 
wall, whi»h feems fo naturalized as to become a part of it. 
Some of the buildings are fitted up, and are inhabited by fer- 
vants, who take care of an aviary which his grace has eftabliihed 
here. The other parts are decorated with plantations of various 
trees and fhrubs, fo as to afford a delightful point of view from 
every ftation whence they are vifible. This view was drawn 
anno 1774. 


JriAVING in the former plate given the hiftory of the foun- 
dation and prefent ftate of this monaftery. I mall here lay- 
before the. reader a curious furvey of it, made about the year 
1567, by George Clarkfon, furveyor to Thomas, the feventh 
earl of Northumberland, with which I was favoured by the 
Rev. Dr. Percy. It may be neceffary tq obferve, that, on com- 
paring this furvey with an accurate £lan lately taken, it ap- 
pears, that Clarkfon has made feveral miftakes as to the fitua- 
tion of the building, with refpecl: to the points of the compafs j 
it is, neverthelefs, well worth preferving.. 

" As it were in the middle of the two parkes called Hulne 
and Weft Parke, is fituate the parte diffolved monafterye of 
Hulne, laite in the tenure of fir Robarte Ellerker, knighte, by 
the graunnte of the laite kinge of famous memorye, Henry the 
Eighte, for the tearme of his life onlye, and without payment 
of any rent, and now his lordfhipe's inheritance,, for that he 
did purches the fame of Anthony Rone, auditor, and Mr* 
Richard Alritone, the queene's majefties receyver, who did ob- 
teyne by purches of the prince, the faid feite and howfe of 
Hulne, with clofings,, and other medowe grondes lyinge within 
the faid parke, and apperteaninge unto the fame. It hath bene 
inclofed with a drye ftone walle,, the circuite whereof contea- 
neth in itfelf * . roodc ? within which circuite ther be thre 

clofas j. 


clofas ; vidz. one clofe lyinge one the weft parte of the fayde 
howfe, conteyneth itfelf . . acres. The fecond clofe lying one 
the fouthe parte thereof, conteyneth in itfelf .... And the 
thirde clofe, which lyeth upon the eaft fyde of the garding, 
conteaneth in itfelf .... The howfe is environed with a cur- 
taine walle made of lyme and ftone, with a fmall battlement 
and quadrant. The entrie thereunto is a towre called the gait 
howfe, and is of three howfe height, covered with fklaite, and 
guttered with leade, and within the fame is a fmale curtaine 
half quadrant, conteyning in length . . yerdes, in breadth . . 

On the eaft fyde of the faid curtaine is buylded the hall, 
covered with fklaite, whiche would be repared as well in the 

tymber as in the fklaite worke. It conteaneth in length 

and in breath And in the weft end of the fame halle is 

the pantrie, maid all of waynfcotte, and pannell worke. And 
at the fouth end of the faid halle, is a lyttle walle maid of lyme 
and ftone, betwixt the halle and the garding walle; it con- 
teanethe in lengthe . . yerdes. And in the fame litle walle is 
a dore, maide of ftone and lyme, to ferve for palfaidge into 
the cloyfter, chappell, and other howfes of offices, and cham- 
bers, which are aboute the faide cloyfters : and frome the faide 
ftone walle to the faide little fquare towre, called the Gait- 
howfe towre, is another ftone walle, havinge alfo a ftone door, 
hewen worke, for the paflaidge into the gardinge ; the fame 
walle conteaneth in length . . yerdes. From the faide little 
towre towards the north, is a curtaine wall, conteaning in 
length . . yerdes, wherein is the lyke doore for paflaidge inta 
two feveral ftables which are betwixt the faid walle, and the 
faide curtaine walle. 

And joyninge to the end of the faid litle walle is buylded a 
howfe, coverede with fklaite, which is in length . . yerdes, and 
in breadth . . yerdes. The neather parte of the faid howfe is 
called the farmeyre ; the over parte ferveth for a gardner for 
come; the lofte may be helped with fmall reparacons; the 



iklaitc arc in decaye, and muft forthwith be reparede: the iron 
banes, which were in the wyndowes of this howfe, are taken 
awaye fence my lorde's purches, by fuche as were remaneres in 
his howfe. And at the end of this howfe is a paffaidge of five 
foote broade to the brewhoufe, ftandinge betwixte the faid 
farmerye and the faide curtaine walle, and to another litle cur- 
taine, which is behinde the kytchinge. And over-whorte the 
northern end of the faid firft curtaine, ther is a howfe bnyl- 
dede, of two howfe height, covered with fklaite, and in goode 
reparations ; it is in length . . foote, and in breadth . . foote. 
The neather parte thereof ferveth for the paffaidge or entrie 
into the kytchinge. Whiche kytchinge is buylded mofl lyke 
unto the facione of a fquare towre, with a round roofe, coverd 
with fklaite, which would be repared ; and in the fame kytch- 
inge is two chimleyes, with fair raindges ; one over a dreffer; 
and a litle howfe for the paftrie. And the weft end of the 
faide lower parte of the faide croffe-howfe, is a ceaftern of flone 
fet in the grounde, which receyveth the water be pypes of leade 
•from the condyte, for ferving the faid kytchinge. The over 
parte of the faid howfe is a fair chambre, with one chimleye : 
and joyninge thereunto is another litle chamber. 

Right over the faid paftrie howfe, in the north ende of the 
halle is the butterye, for the moft parte fquare ; and betwixte 
the butterye and the halle is a paffaidge to the faid cloifter and 
aifo by a broad flair of woode to the faid two chambers. Nighe 
above the entrie of the kytchinge, as aforefaid, is a lofte which 
is over the faid butterye, pantrie, and paffaidge, nighe the 
halle aforefaid, now ufed for a gardner, and before tyme for 
the lorde or prior's walke, to fe throughe trelefes the ufe of 
ther fervants in the halle ; and it alfo ferveth for a paffaidge to 
the lordye's great chamber and towre. 

The faid cloyfter is fquare : in the middeft thereof groweth 
a tree of ewe. It conteaneth in length . . yerdes, and in 
breadth . . yerdes. It is well paved with ftone aboute the 
faid cloyfter; the windowes haith been glafyned, and nowe for 



the mod parte are in decaye. The eaft and weft fydes of the 
faide cloyfter was covered with lead; there was of it foure 
fother by eftimatione, which was taken and carried all away 
by William Ellerker and his brethren, fence his lordfhip's faid 
purches. The fouth fyde is the dorter, wherein is . . cham- 
bers. And joyninge thereunto alfo upon the grounde under 
the weft end of the faid dorter is one howfe called the women 
howfe; wherein is two chambers with one chimley. In the 
myddle of this end of the faid cloyfter is the chapell, wherein 
is nothinge left but feates and ftalles ; and ther was one litle 
ambre, which ferved for the keapinge of the bookes and orna- 
ments of the faid chapell : the fame was taken away be John 
Recubye, one of the indwellers of the parke. And at the eaft 
end of the faid fouth fyde ther is a paffaidge to the faide dorter 
(it is to be noted, that in the tyme of the frears the chapell 
that now is, was ther chapiter howfe). The churche is all 
downe, and laid into the gardinge. The faid dorter, chapell, 
and women howfe, is covered all with fklaite in great ruyne, 
and would be reparede. The window,, which before tyme were 
all glafined, are likewife in greate decay, woulde be repared; 
moft efpecyallye the windowe of the chapell. This view was 
drawn anno 1774. 

HULNE ABBET. ( Plate III. ) 

AND enlonge the northe fyde of the fayd cloifter is one howfe of 
tw^houfe heigh te, conteaninge in length . foote, and in breade 
, . foote. In the neather part thereof is two fellers : the over parte 
thereof in great decay ; the irone ftaynfhels takenfwith of the 
windows, fence his lordfhipe purchafed the faid howfe. And in 
the north eaft nooke of the faid cloyfter is one entrance into 
one howfe of two howfe heighte, havinge in the neather parte 
two chambers with one chymley, in the whiche ther was a fair 
bed of framede worke, cloffe, and all of wainfcotte : it was 
worth fortie ihillinges and above. It was maide by the laite 

E e erlle 


erlle of Northumbreland, my lorde's uncle ; taykcn in peaces 
and caryed away by John Ellerker. And in the over parte 
of the faid howfe is alfo a chamber with one chymley. 
This howfe is covered with fklaite, and would be poyiited with 

In the weft nooke of the fayde north parte of the faide 
cloyfter, is a condyte of tryme frefh Water, which water cometh 
frome one place of the fayde parke, called the Frears wells, in 
pypes of lead; which are in length . . yerdes, and rynneth into a 
ceafterne of leade, conteyninge in length . foote, and in breadth 
. ynches, which ftandeth of ftone properlie fet in the walle; 
and from thence runneth in pypes of lead, not only into the faid 
ceafterne of ftone, for the fervice of the fayde kitchinge, but 
nnto the brewhowfe alfo : the faid pypes of lead would alfo be 
repared. And . upon the backfyde of the faide farmerye, is a 
title curtaine; and alfo joyninge upon the curtaine walle is a 
howfe of . foote in length, and . foote in breade, coverd 
withe fklaite, ande in goode reparationes. In the one end 
thereof is a partitione for the boultinge howfe, and in the 
myddfte a fair chimley with a furnafe, and a lytle oven ther ; 
two litle fmale brewe leades in two furnaces, which were taken 
downe by Robert Ellerker, and yet remaneth in the howfe. 
Ther is alfo in that end of this howfe, which ferveth for the 
brewhoufe, certaine vefTell unto the fame appertayninge, as 
coole-fatte, and gayle-fatte, other fuch like implements ; 
which are lykewyfe ftayed unto his lordfhip's pleafure by farther 

And at the north ende of the fayd brewhowfe and behinde 
the faid kytchynge, butterye, and great chamber, is another 
curtaine, which is in lengthe . yerdes, and in breade . . foot. 
The weft ende thereof is the curtayne walle, one the north 
fyde joyninge; and upon the faide curtaine wall is buylded two 
houfes, the one called the byer, which is in length . foote, and 
in breade . foote. It hath a dore through the faid curtaine 
walle for the cattell to paffe in, and through. The over parte 
of the faid byer will ferve for a haye-lofte , the other howfe is 

a barnc^ 


a barne, conteyninge in length . foote, and the lyke breade 
as byer is. They are both coverd with thatch, and in good 
reparacions, and the barne hath alfo a door through the wall, 
for taykinge in corne into the fame. 

And in the eaft ende of the faide curtaine is the fayde towre 
called the lordes towre, which is in length . foote, and in 
breade . foote, and is of thre howfe height, coverd with leade ; 
the neather part thereof is a vault. The other two houfes are 
two faire chambers, in eyther of theme one chymley; and upon 
the top thereof above the leades, on the fouth fyde thereof, is 
rayfed as it were a garrett, wyth the lyke battlement as the 
towre haith, endlong all the fouth fyde of the faide towre, 
which is alfo coverd with leade, in length . foote, and in breade 
. foote. And in the fame is a howfe with a chymley, called the 
ftudye-howfe : the leades are efteamed to be five fother and a 
half. It rayneth in foure feverall places of the fame, whiche 
for value of ten fhillings woulde be mended ; and much re- 
quyfite it wer for to be helped. The glaffe of the windowes 
be all gone, and broken ; and at the foote of the towre, befide 
the vaulte, is alfo a doore for the pafTaidge into the gardinge,,. 
The entrance into the towre is through the lordes great cham-> 
bre, as before is mentioned. 

And one the eaft fyde of the faide towre and cloyfter, and 
within the curtaine wall aforefaid, is two gardinges. The one„ 
which is next the towre, is in length . yerdes, and in breade 
. yerdes, having a pofterne through the fayde curtaine walle 
for a pafTaidge into the fayde clofTe, lyinge one the eaft fyde 
of the faid howfe ; and hath alfo one greafe or ftaire for goinge 
upe the battlements of the faide walle, for a walke upone the 
fame walle about the faide gardings and orcharde. The other 
gardinge conteaneth in length . yerdes, and in breade . yerdes. 
It was a very faire gardinge, now all fordoone, and the herbes 
waifted, and deftroyed ; and lykwyfe the gardinge. Alfo the 
place where the church was, is now full of cherrye-trees : and 
upon the fouth fyde of the faid dorter, joyninge upon the 



(aide gafdinge, and within the faid curtaine walle, is a little 
orchard, contayninge in itfelf an halfe acre of grounde by 
dtimatione, in the which groweth one pear-tree, . . . trees,; all 
the other be plome-trees and bullefter-trees ; ther be alio crafts 
of apple-trees' in the faid two gardings, and lykewife in the 
faid litle clofe, called the fouth clofe. 

And without the fayde curtaine walle, and within the out- 
mefle walle, nighe unto the laid byer dore, is one barne or 
laithe coverd with thatche, and is in length . foote, and in 
breade . foote. Yt is in good reparatione ; and right over one 
the other fyde of the waye is a lytle dove-kette foure-fquared, 
coverd with fklaite, new repared by his lordlhipe, wherein is 
a good flight of doves. And joyninge nighe the faid fcite of 
Hulne towards the weft, is one clone, called the calfe clofe, 
conteyninge . acres of ground. It is latelye made arable by the 
fayd fir Robert Ellerker, knighte ; and fuch places thereof as 
will not be come, is kepte for medowe grounde ; the wood that 
groweth therein is oke and aller. 

The fcite of this howfe of Hulne ftandeth in a very tryme 
ay re, and upone the water of Alne, in the myddle of the 
parkes, as before is mentioned, within one myell of Alnewycke, 
and not four myells from the fea-fyde ; fo that yf the houfe 
were well repaired, his lordfhip's parkes and groundes in that 
order, as is before recyted, it were a tryme place for his lord- 
fhip to lye at, yf he did lye in the countrie, during the tyme 
of the fomer quarter; as well for his lordfhip's pleafure and 
comodities, as the eafe of tenants furnyfhinge of his lordfhip's 
caftells Alnewicke and Workeworth with provifione for his 
lordfhip's lyinge therein the other thre quarters of the yere. 
Yf all his fervants and geldings could not be placed ther, then 
were Alnewick caftle nighe enoughe for that purpofe. -Where- 
fore it were muche requifyte his lordlhipe well confidered to 
whome he fhould appoynte the keapinge of the faid howfe ; 
for when it was in the handes of fir Robert Ellerker, it was no 
lefle hurtfull unto his game, then deftructive of his woodes, 


£i|§U Gate- 27ou*e 

4I : " 

JZu/rte ^ttritty 


Thit JEx/dan ation- a>i//ev<d' it chiefly jriven- from a Survey made in 
l56g fy &a>; Cta^tc^on, Surveyor to T/wf Terty (tie. 7 .** JZari. ~of 
UToi-thutnhcrland . 

•&.T/ie Dormitory o-vcr t/te liefectory & /tait of die Cfoy,/-fer. 
~h.Tke Win tieti 'House only 00 catted after it came it/, to t/ie bTatidJ of 
the JSarto of ' 2foi-thtu*nhertand:I/ ntw /irohahl)' /tart of die 
Ttn'ont JL/tarttnenit 

c,xL,e£,g,g,g.Wir-e the 0/fi.ux' hctot/ai//a to the Motiastty ', hut 
cannot easily he made out fronts hYar/oHmlf Survey, do he- 
ZiaJ comtnitted tyreat 3fhrtafceo wr't/i jRet/artt to the Fointt 
of the Cirm/ia/G;T/icte Officeo co/itti-tied 

cAKitotuna fault ti/cc a jaitare Tmw. 
i..Tairtry err J3 afce -- ITtru^ . 
e.Boiiltin*/ BToiue . 
f.Far7/iety &. &ur?ier av-er it. 
g.g.g.-Breir/io/cJe Jlyen' J5am> &e.Sx>. 
Jh'tiveen ttfc Z ordj Tower & the lloyoter nwJ fault a. 
fioom, t/jtder ttie Study Eou^e called the-Zords prvaJr 

~h.T/ut> f 'Space from Clarlcj-on* Survey/ '.y/ioiitd 
Jeem, to hare h^en t/^ed for a Halt., Buttery It 
Bantry . 
Some of *We outward Buttdui^) ruere tMed for Stafa^y 
it 1 Hie titne of Clar^tcJon' & /ierlui/td h^efvr& . 


his parkes kepte thereby in dyforder, through his cattell, 
which he had goinge therin ; and in the ende difpleafure, be- 
caufe his lordfhip dyde enter into his owne." This view was 
drawn anno 1774. 


( Plate I. ) 

1 HE remains of this monaftery ftand on what Bede calls a 
femi-iiland, being, as he juftly obferves, twice an ifland and 
twice continent in one day; for at the flowing of the. tide it 
is encompafled by water, and at the ebb there is an almoft dry 
pafTage, both for horfes and carriages, to and from the main 
land; from which, ifmeafuredon a ftraight line, it is diftant 
about two miles eaftward; but on account of fome quickfands 
paflengers are obliged to make fo many detours, that the length 
of way is nearly doubled. The water over thefe flats, at fpring- 
tides, is only 7 feet deep. 

This ifland was by the Britons called Inis Medicante ; alfo 
Lindisfarne, from the fmall rivulet of Lindi which here runs 
into the fea, and the Celtic word fahren, or recefs ; alfo on ac- 
count of its beins; the habitation of fome of the firft monks in 
this country : it afterwards obtained its prefent name of Holy 
ifland. It meafures from eafh to weft about two miles and a 
quarter, and its breadth from north to fouth is fcarcely a mile 
and a half. At the north-weft part there runs out a fpit of 
land of about a mile in length. The monaftery is fituated at 
the fouthernmoft extremity; and a fmall diftance north of it 
ftands the little town, inhabited chiefly by nihermen. This 
ifland, tho' really part of Northumberland, belongs to Durham ; 
and all civil difputes muft be determined by the juftices of that 

The hiftory of the foundation of this monaftery is thus re- 
lated. The chriftian religion eftablifhed in Northumberland 
under king Edwin, having been almoft extirpated after the 

F f defeat 


defeat and death of that prince. Ofwald, a virtuous and reli- 
gious man, obtained that kingdom about the year 634. He, 
being not more folicituous for the temporal than the fpiritual 
intereft of his fubjects, difpatched certain mefTengers to his 
neighbours the Scots, who had long before embraced the gofpel 
of chrift, to defire them to fend him fome fit perfons to preach 
chriftianity in his dominions. The Scots willingly confented to 
his petition, and fent a prieft, whofe name has not been handed 
down — a good man, but of a peevifh and auftere difpofition ; 
who not immediately meeting with the fuccefs he expected (the 
people not thoroughly underftanding him on account of his 
dialect), he returned home abruptly, and declared to the 
bilhops and others afTembled in a fynod, that there was no 
poffibility of converting fo barbarous a nation as the Englifh 
then was. Aidane, a prudent as well as pious man, being 
prefent when this account was given, and having carefully 
enquired every particular reflecting the matter, obferved, 
that a want of temper and patience had occafioned this mif- 
carriage. He openly faid, that this man had not treated 
the Englifh with a proper condefcenfion and gentlenefs, fuch 
as were fuitable for babes in Chrift; that he ought to have 
fed them with milk, that is, eafy doctrines of the gofpel, 
till they were capable of ftronger meat. Thefe words fo 
ftruck the whole afTembly, that they all judged him the 
fitted perfon for this miffion, and accordingly created him a 
bifhop, and fent him to preach the gofpel to the Northum- 

Oswald received him, and fome other monks who accom- 
panied him, with the greateft joy and refpect; and having fixed 
his feat at this ifland, gave him all poffible encouragement and 
afiiftance: and fuch was this king's zeal, that he not only con- 
stantly attended divine fervice, but alfo condefcended himfelf 
to interpret and enforce Aidane's difcourfes both to his cour- 
tiers and other fubjects. This he was enabled to do, by hav- 


ing learned the Scottifli dialect during his banilh merit into that 

The courtiers, it is not to be doubted, were to a man in- 
ftantly convinced ; the reafoning of a king always to them car- 
rying inconteftible evidence: perhaps the converfion of the 
•others was not quite fo rapid. However, at length the exam- 
ple of their fuperiors, joined to the endeavours of Aidane, who 
was really, a pious, humble, and indefatigable minifter, had 
fuch effect:, that crouds of all ranks daily thronged to him for 
baptifm, fo that chriflianity was completely eftabliihed. Aidane 
prefided here 14 years, during which time he comported him- 
felf with an apoftolic humility, always travelling on foot, and 
beftowing on the poor whatfoever was given him by the rich. 
He died auguft 31, anno 651, as it is faid, of grief for the 
death of king Ofwin, whom he furvived only ten days. He 
was buried in the church of Lindisfarne ; and was efteemed fo 
holy, that Colman, alfo a biihop of that fee, fome years after- 
wards retiring into Scotland, anno 664, carried part of his re- 
liques with him. The monks of Glaftonbury falfly pretended 
lie was buried in their abbey. 

Aidane was fucceeded by Finan, a monk of the fame monas- 
tery, who is faid by Bede to have built a church here, fuitable 
to the bifhop's fee : this is defcribed to have been framed with, 
oak and thatched with reeds, according to the Scottifh manner 
of building. What kind of edifice they had here before, for 
the celebration of divine fervice, is not mentioned; but cer- 
tainly it mufl have been a very humble one, if this was con- 
fidered as an improvement. This church was afterwards con- 
fecrated by Theodore, archbifhop of Canterbury, and dedicated 
to St. Peter; and before the end of the century, biihop Eadbert, 
having taken off the thatch, covered the roof and fides with 
iheet lead. 

During the incumbency of Colman, the next bifhop, a 
controverfy concerning the celebration of Eafler, and the ton- 
ftire of priefts, and fome other ceremonials of the church, 



w hich had long been agitated with great acrimony, was deter- 
mined in favour of the roman manner, in preference to that of 
the Eaftern churches, by king Oiwy, at a council held at 
Streanefhal (now Whitby) monaftery; on which account Col- 
man abandoned Lindisfarne, and returned to Scotland. 

About the time of his fucceffor Tuda, the kingdom of Nor- 
thumberland was divided into three diocefes, Landisfarne, York, 
and Hexham, all formerly belonging to Lindisfarne. Nothing 
elfe of moment refpecling this monaftery happened during the 
epifcopacy of the fucceeding bifhops Chad and Eta, except that 
the laft was depofed in a full chapter of bifhops for denying the 
authority of Theodore over the northern churches. 

Eta was fucceeded by Cuthbert, the great faint of this part 
of the kingdom, whofe life, as told in the Legends, was 
extremely wonderful; and being infeperably interwoven with 
the hiftory of feveral places hereafter to be mentioned, the 
lubftance of it is here related. 

St. Cuthbert, as it is generally agreed, was born of mean 
parents, tho' fome make him defcended from the blood royal 
of Ireland; but the firft feems the molt probable, as he followed 
the occupation of a fhepherd in his youth, and from that em- 
ployment was ^called to the church by the following extraor- 
dinary vifion : 

Once, in the dead of night, whilft he was watching his 
fold near the river Seder, his fenfes were ravifhed by a divine 
harmony, and amidft a blaze of glorious light he faw the foul 
of St. Aidane conveyed to heaven by a choir of angels. This 
vifion fo wrought upon him, that from thenceforward he re- 
folved to dedicate his future life to religion. In confequence of 
this determination, he fet out for the abbey of Melrofs, on the 
banks of the Tweed ; but in his way thither being overtaken 
by night and forely diftrefTed with hunger, he took fhelter in 
a ftable, where a horfe, in eating, difcovered a loaf of bread 
which had been hid by a fhepherd under fome ftraw in the 
manger. This Cuthbert confidering as providentally put there 



for his ufe, took without any fcruple ; and giving one half to 
the horfe, regaled himfelf with the other, and next morning 
reached the monaftery. He was no fooner entered into that 
holy edifice, than Boyfilous the prior, as if by divine impulfe, 
kindly received him, introduced him to the abbot, and took 
him under his own tuition, teaching him, among other trea* 
tifes, St. John's gofpel. The ftory goes, that the Very book in 
which St. Cuthbert ufed to read, was long afterwards kept 
at Durham, and was held in fuch reverence even by the 
moths, that none of them ever ventured to fet a facrilegious 
tooth in it. 

Hence, after undergoing a pious probation of 15 years, he 
was promoted to the dignity of prior of Lindisfarne; which 
office he fo irreproachably executed for 1.2 years, as frequently 
to provoke the devil to an attempt to interrupt and vex him by 
fome of thofe unlucky tricks with which he likewife persecuted 
St. Anthony, St. Dunftan, and other faints. 

This plate, which lhews the ruins of the monaftery as they 
appear when viewed at a fmall diftance, from a ftation a little 
to the fouthward of the eaft, was drawn anno 1773. 


( Plate IL ) 

IN the former plate it was faid, fatan was fo provoked and 
hurt by the fanctity of St. Cuthbert, that he tried every means 
in his power to give him uneafinefs, and to prevent the effects 
of his exhortations. Two of thefe attacks are thus recordede 
Once upon a time, when the faint was preaching in a certain 
village to a crouded audience, the alarm was given, that there 
was one of the cottages on fire* This drew a number of people 
from the fermon to extinguifh it, which was juft what fatan 
propofed; the more water they threw on it the more fiercely it 
feemed to burn, and all effects to put it out proved ineffectual* 

G g The 


The faint miffing fo many of his auditors, enquired the c'aufe; 
when leaving off his preaching, and repairing to the fcene of 
action, he perceived it was all allufion, and ordered a few 
drops of holy water to be fprinkled on it ; on which the devil 
fneaked off, and the fire difappeared. 

Another time, for the fame purpofe, the devil took on hirrt 
the likenefs of a beautiful woman ; and whilft the faint was 
preaching, placed himfelf in a confpicuous place, where by the 
charms of his affumed form he fo bewitched the whole congre- 
gation, that all their attention was diverted from the difcourfe ; 
it was in vain that Cuthbert exerted all his rhetoric; he 
preached to perfons whofe fenfes were otherwife employed : at 
length, fufpecting the cafe, he heartily befprinkled the pre- 
tended lady with holy water, by the efficacy of which the de*- 
ception was defbroyed, and fatan appeared to the furprifed 
fpectators in propria perfona. At the expiration of i z years, 
St. Cuthbert, fatigued with the duties of his office, refigned it, 
as he thought it with-held him too much from prayer and 
meditation ; he then retired to one of the Farn iflands, a barren 5 , 
bleak, inhofpitable rock, fituated in the main ocean, where he 
erected himfelf a kind of hermitage. 

This ifle (fays the legend} " which was as void' of men as 
full of devils," became the fcene or ftage whereon the faint 
acted many of his miracles ; for at his arrival the fpirits that 
had frequented it were glad to fly,, and to forego their title; 
the rocks poured out their water, and the earth (as if there had 
been a return of the golden age) brought forth corn without 
tillage : and here he confecrated nine years to meditation, fo 
wholly devoted to heaven, that he forgot he was on earth; 
and in a whole year did not put off his fhoes. And altho' he 
wanted men for his auditors, yet he ceafed not to preach. 
Some birds having eat up his corn, he made them a difcourfe 
to correct their rapacity; taking for his text thefe words, 
" Thou {halt not covet another's goods;" which text he fo 
handled, and fo clearly demonftrated the enormity of their 



crime, that they never after touched a grain of his barley. In 
like manner he reclaimed two crows from an habitual dif- 
• honefty. Thefe birds, who, it is too well known by the far- 
mers, are a little apt to difregard the nice diftinctions of pro- 
perty, in order to build their nefts, had plucked off fome of 
the belt ftraws from the faints dwelling ; whereupon he cited 
them personally to appear before him, and fo fermonized and 
documented them, and rendered them fo penitent, that they 
lay proftrate at his feet for abfolution; and the next day brought 
him a piece of pork to make him fatisfaction. Here cafuifts 
may raife an objection to the propriety of receiving the prefent, 
as it was not in all probality honeftly come by. To thefe it 
will be fufficient now to anfwer, that St. Cuthbert was un- 
doubtedly convinced of its being their lawful property, other- 
wife he mod certainly would not have accepted of it. Perhaps, 
had this objection been made fome centuries ago, the fceptic 
would have been anfwered with Peter's plain argument, and a 
fmithfield fyllogifm; that is, a load of faggots for the major, 
a lighted torch for the minor, and a burning for the con- 

In this dreary folitude St. Cuthbert remained feveral years, 
during which time he had a variety of combats with the devil, 
the print of whofe feet are (it is faid) to be feen in many 
places. If any perfons, out of devotion, came to vifit him, he 
retired to his cell, and difcourfed with them only through his 
window. Once, indeed, to oblige a lady, the abbefs of Coir 
lingham, he paid her a vifit at the ifle of Coquet, where going 
down to the fea-lhore, as was his cuftom every night, two fea- 
monfters prefented themfelves kneeling before him, as if to 
demand his benediction ; which having received, they returned 
to the deep, as did the faint to his hermitage. 

The fanctity of his life becoming famous,, he was in a full 
fynod held at Twyford, near the river Alne, anno 664, in the 
prefence of K. Egfrid, elected biihop of Lindisfarne; which 



dignity was propbcfied to him when a boy, by an infant of 
three years of age, who gravely told him, " It became not a 
biihop to play with children." 

Cut h bert was with much difficulty prevailed upon to ac- 
cept of this dignity, and he enjoyed it only about two years ; 
after which he refigned it and returned to his hermitage, and 
there ended his life; directing by his lafb will, that his body 
fhould be buried at the eaft end of his oratory, in a ftone coffin 
given him by the holy Tuda, and wrapt up in a fheet prefented 
him as a token by Virca, abbefs of Tynemouth, which out of 
reverence to that holy woman he had never ufed ; and laftly, 
if the ifland mould be invaded by pagans, he ordered the 
monks to fly from them, and to carry his bones away with them. 
Thefe directions were none of them performed, his body was 
tranfported to Lindisfarne, where, in St. Peter's church, at 
the right fide of the high altar, he was folemnly laid in a 
tomb of ftone ; but the monks left behind them the coffin for 
which he exprefled fuch a regard, which ftill continues to be 
fhewn at Farn ifland ; and it is highly probable were not more 
mindful of the fheet. 

St. Cuthbert had been dead 1 1 years when the monks opening 
his fepulchre, in order to depofit his bones among their reliques ; 
to their great aftonifhment they found his body quite intire, 
his joints flexible, and his face unaltered, bearing rather the 
femblance of fleep than death. Corruption had fhewn th* 
fame refpect to his garments, which remained whole and 
unfullied : hereupon they placed the body in a new fhrine. 

In the year 793, being the 5th of Ethelred, the church of 
Lindisfarne was almoft totally deftroyed. A fleet of pagans 
arriving in the north, and ranging the coafts, landed the 
7th of the Ides of June, and coming to this church they 
miferably plundered it, defiled the holy places, overthrew the 
altars, and carried away the treafures of the church, taking 
fome of the monks with them as captives ; and after violently 
abufing others, turned them out naked. According to the 



fuperftition of the times, moft dreadful lightning and other 
prodigies are related to have portended the ruin of this place ; 
the deftroyers of which (as it is faid) all perifhed miferably. 
The bifhops and other pious perfons, afterwards re-edified 
and reftored the monaftery, which flourifhed till the year 
867. When Haldane, king of Denmark, landed at Tyne- 
mouth, Eadulph, bilhop of Lindisfarne, remembering their 
former outrages, held counfel with the monks what courfe was 
to be taken in this extremity ; when calling to mind the in- 
junctions of St. Cuthbert, which they had not before attended 
to, they determined to quit the place ; and accordingly taking 
the body with them, they fhifted their habitation from place 
to place for near 7 years, and even once attempted to carry it 
to Ireland, but were beat back by contrary winds. At length, 
they came to Craike in Yorkfhire, where they abode 4 months ; 
and then returning as far as Chefter-le-ftreet, they there 
placed the corpfe of St. Cuthbert; upon which the fee was 
transferred thither, where it remained many years. At their 
flight the monaftery of Lindisfarne was a fecond time deftroyed 
by the Danes, who being baulked of their expected booty, 
wreaked their vengeance on the empty edifice. 

This view fhews the north afpect of the ruins of the 
church, and was taken near the ftile which leads to the 
town, anno 1773. 


( Plate III. ) 

-L HE pagan invaders frill continuing their depredations, the 
monks again removed the body, and brought it to Rippon in 
Yorkfhire, where, refting till thefe troubles were a little blown 
over, they fet out for Chefter-le-ftreet ; but on their way 
thither, pafTmg through a wildernefs then called Dunholme, 
on the eaft of it, at a place named Wardlaw, the chariot 

H h wherein 


wherein, the holy corpfe was carried miraculoufly flood ft ill, 
nor could it be moved by the utmoft efforts of men or beads* 
Upon which the biihop commanded a general fad to be kept 
for three days, and continual prayer to be made, in order to 
know the faint's pleafure concerning the difpofition of his 
body ; and it was revealed by a vifion to one Eadmor, a holy 
man, that the corpfe fhould be brought to Dunholme. This,, 
after much difficulty, owing to their being ignorant where it 
was, they accordingly accomplifhed, and built there a fmall 
oratory, or rather arbour of boughs, then a fmall church, and 
afterwards a more magnificent one* But it was deftined that 
the body of this faint fhould not reft long in quiet ; for in the 
year 1096 the people of the north rebelling, and William the 
conqueror punifhing them with fire and fword> the monks, 
though innocent, yet being fearful of the refentment of that 
king, once more took up their faint, and made the beft of their 
way to Lindisfarne. In this flight, which happened about 
chriftmas, they refted the firft night at Jarrow, the fecond at 
Bedlington, the third at Tughill, and on the fourth evening 
they came oppofite to the Holy ifland; but the tide being in 
they thought they fhould have been conftrained to wait till the 
time of low water. The weather was very cold, and the night 
approaching, they were in great diflrefs and danger; where- 
upon the people lamenting and calling on St. Cuthbert for fuc- 
cour, the fea fuddenly and miraculoufly opened itfelf, and af- 
forded a paffage on dry land for the holy corpfe and its atten- 
dants: and when they had fafely reached the ifland, the waters 
clofed again, and took their accuftomed courfe. Upon this 
miracle the four perfons that carried the body, and who were 
feculars, immediately renounced the world and became monks. 
Here this holy company continued about three months and 
fome few days, till they had made their peace with the king; 
who going northward, they returned to Durham, and in the 
month of April replaced the facred corpfe with great folemnity 
in its former repofitory. The faint, though dead, fhortly after 



repaid the conqueror for the jaunt he had caufed him, and in 
his turn put that king to flight. The ftory is related in the 
following manner. William on his return from Scotland came 
to Durham, and expreffed his doubts of the incorruptibility of 
the holy body, notwithftanding he had been particularly affured 
of the truth thereof by the monks themfelves, who, as difin- 
terefted perfons, were doubtlefs competent evidences. To be 
convinced he commanded the fhrine to be opened, and threat- 
ened that if he did not find the body there, and in the ftate 
pretended, he would put them all to death ; but before his 
commands could be executed, in the prefence of the whole af« 
fembly, he was ftricken with an extreme heat, fury, and fick- 
nefs, fo that he could not endure it, but was conftrained forth- 
with to depart out of the church ; and with all poflible hafte 
taking his horfe, and leaving a fumptuous banquet that was 
prepared for him, he pofted away from Durham, and could not 
be at reft, but ftill fpurred and urged forward his horfe till he 
got to the river Tees. Some reported that the king in his ex- 
treme hafte took his way down the lane, now, and ever fince 
that time, called king's gate, in the north Bailey in Durham. 
This miracle did not however prevent the truth ot the entire 
ftate of St. Cuthbert's body from being doubted, and that even 
by fome prelates ; on which account, in the third year of K* 
Hen. I. anno 1104, as the new church founded by William de 
Carilepho was almoft nnifhed, into which it was to be trans- 
ferred, the holy fepulchre was opened, and the body with 
all things about it found whole, found, and flexible, having 
its natural weight and full fubftance of fleih, blood, and bones : 
a moft heavenly fragment odour proceeded from it, and it was 
brought forth and ftrictly examined by above 40 perfons, 
noblemen, clergy, and laity, confifting of fuch as were deemed 
fit and worthy to be eye-witnefies of fo rare and reverend a 
fpectacle. Among thefe worthy and lit perfons it is not to be 
fuppofed thofe were included, who had dared impioufly to doubt 
the faint's incorruptibility. 



After this infpection it was carried round the church in 
proceffion, and reverently placed in the new church in a fump- 
tuous fepulchre prepared for that purpofe. In the reign of 
Hen. VIII. it was again opened by commiffioners from that 
king ; when the body, it was pretended, was found exactly in 
the fame ftate as it is before defcribed. It was afterwards put 
up in a wooden coffin, and buried in a private place in the 
cathedral. There is a tradition that this place is known only to 
three pious perfons, and that on the deceafe of one of them the 
fecret is communicated by the furvivors to another. Some pre- 
tend the place of his prefent interment is near the clock. In 
this account of St. Cuthbert, wonderful as it is, many miracles 
have been patted over: fuch as his entertaining angels at the 
monaftery at Rippon ; his being fed with loaves brought him hot 
from heaven by an angel ; a regale of fiili prefented him by an 
eagle; and a ftrange recovery of his pfalin-book, which, in his 
voyage from Ireland to Scotland in company with his mother,, 
he let fall overboard, when it was fwallowed by a fea-calf, who 
politely prefented him with it at his landing. It feems this 
faint ftill retains an affection for his old refidence at Lindif- 
farne ; as, according to the vulgar belief, he often comes thi- 
ther in the night, and fitting upon a certain rock ufes another 
as his anvil, on which he forges his beads. In fact, plenty of 
entrochi are found here among the rocks, and are picked up 
and fold by the children to ftrangers under the title of St. 
Cuthbert's beads, from whence arofe this ftory, by the fpe- 
cimen above given, probably not difbelieved in former times. 

After the death of St. Cuthbert, Lindisfarne continued a 
bifhop's fee through a fucceffion of 18 bifhops, reckoning from 
the nrft; it was afterwards, as has been fhewn, removed to 
Chefter-le-ftreet, called formerly Cunaceftre, whence 8 bilhops 
took the titles of bifhops of Chefter; and Iaftly, on the removal 
of the body of St. Cuthbert to Durham anno yys, Lindisfarne, 
according to Tanner, became a cell to that monaftery; in it 
were benedictine monks, whofe revenues 26th of Hen, VIII. 



were valued at 481. 18s. 1 id. per annum, Dugdaie; 60 1. 5s* 
Speed. It ftill continues part of the pofteffions of the dean 
and chapter of Durham, having been granted to them 33d of 
Hen. VIII. The church was dedicated to St. Peter. 

By whom that edifice was built, whofe ruins are here repre> 
fented, does not appear ; though probably it was the work of 
different periods. Great part of it feems very ancient; the 
arches being circular, and the columns very marly, and much 
like thofe at Durham,, but richer; on the north and fouth 
walls there are pointed arches ; which proves that part of k P 
at leaft, was built fince the reign of Hen. II. Various frag- 
ments of the offices of this monaftery built with reddifh ftone 
are ftill Handing, and foundations of buildings are feattered 
over a clofe of near four acres ; but its chief remains are the 
church, whofe main walls on the north and fouth fides are 
Handing, though much out of the perpendicular; inclining 
outwards fo confiderably, as to make the horizontal diftance 
between them at the top exceed by near two feet that at the' 
bottom ; another winter or two feem to be the utmoft they can 
Hand. The weft end is likewife pretty entire;; but the eaft is 
almoft levelled with the ground. This building confifbs of a 
body and two fide aifles, into which it is divided by a double 
row of very folid columns,, whofe fhafts are richly orna- 
mented ; each row has five columns of four different conftruc- 
tions, and two pilafters in the walls at the eaft and weft ends* 
The fhafts of thefe columns are about 12 feet high, their 
diameters about five; their pedeftals and capitals are plain; 
they fupport circular arches, having over each arch two 
ranges of windows, the loweft, large and in pairs, feparated 
only by a fhort column, the upper, fmall and fmgle. In the 
north and fouth walls, as has before been obferved, there are 
fome pointed arches. The length of the building is about igft 
feet, the breadth of the body 1 8 feet, and that of the two 
fide aifles about nine feet each. It feems doubtful whether there 
ever was a tranfept. 

li The 


The tower of the church Hands in the center, and was flip- 
ported by two large arches .eroding diagonally; one of them is 
now remaining, and is lhewn plate II. the other fell down not 
long ago. This arch is ornamented in the faxon ftile, much 
after the manner of that of the Strangers hall at Canterbury ; a 
few paces eaft of the church lies a Hone with a fquare cavity 
cut into it, apparently once the pedeftal for a crofs; a fmall 
diftance weil of thefe remains ftands the prefent parifh 
church, which is a neat fmall ftructure: it feems to have 
been built out of the ruins of the monaftery. A fide view 
of it is fhewn in this plate. In this convent Ceolwolph, 
king of Northumberland, anno 729, having abdicated his 
throne, became a monk; but not being able to bear the 
abftemious manner of living there practifed, he obtained per- 
miffion for his monaftery to be allowed to drink wine and ale. 
This opened a way for the fame allowance to other monks ; 
which afterwards terminated in every luxurious indulgence. 
This view which gives the eaft-by-north afpect of the ruins, 
was drawn anno 1773. 


J. HIS caftle was probably built foon after the conqueft., 
though neither the exact time when, nor the name of the buil- 
der, has reached us. At the conqueft, Mitford is faid to have 
been the lordfhip of fir John Mitford, whofe only daughter 
and heir, named Sebil, was given in marriage, by the con- 
queror, to a knight named fir Richard Bertram, by whom lhe 
had two fons, William and Roger. William fucceeded to the 
manor of Mitford and its appurtenances, which was erected 
into a barony by K. Hen. I. He married Alice, the daughter 
of fir William Merlay, of Morpeth, and was the founder of 
Brinkburn priory. His fon Roger being defirous to improve 
his eftate, paid a fine of 50 marks to K. Hen. II. for a weekly 
market at his town of Mitford. 



To him fucceeded William, his fon and heir, whofe barony, 
8th Richard I. was thus rated. His manor of Gretham at 32 s. 
his manors of Felton and Mitford at 41 s. each; and his manor 
of Eiland at 10 s. all of them being branches of his barony- 
He died about the 8th of John, and left his fon and heir* 
Roger, in his minority. Peter de Brus obtained the wardfhip 
of his perfon, with the cuftody of his land, till he Ihould be 
of full age, for which he paid 300 marks ; at which time was 
taken the account of the different branches of his barony here 

In Madox's hiftory of the exchequer there is a copy of a 
record in the 14th of K. John, whereby it appears that Roger 
Fitzwalter fined three good palfreys, to have the king's letter 
to Roger Bertram's mother, that fire fhould marry him. Fines 
t)f this fort was then very common ; as alfo, on the contrary, 
.for perfons to have leave to marry whom they pleafed, or not 
'to be forced to marry at all. The nth of Edw. I. one Alice 
Bertram owed the king 20 marks for not being obliged to 
marry ; and ift of Rich. I. another of the name fined on the 
like occafion. 

Roger coming of age had livery of his lands ; but in the 1 7th 
of John joining with the barons, the king, With the amftance 
of his Ruiters, or Flemifh troops, under Fulke de Brent and 
Walter de Buc, feized his caftle, and wafted the town of Mit- 
ford with fire and fword. The next year, probably whilft the 
cattle remained in the king's cuftody, it was again befieged by 
Alexander, K. of Scotland, as is mentioned in a datelefs tranf- 
cript in Leland's Colleclanea, from a Chronicle called Hiftoria 
Aurea; whither it was taken is not there mentioned* The 
words are, " Alexander, king of Scottes, fun to K. William, 
did entre yn to England, and did much defpite to king John : 
he affegid the cartel of Mitteford and Norham, and toke hom- 
mages of diverfe noblemen of Northumberland, and the county 
of York, wherfor king John - after deftroied much of theyr 
iandes, and bet down Morpeth cartel." 


124 N O R T H IT M B E R L A N D. 

, The barony of Mitford was for awhile given by the king to 
Philip de Ulecotes; but upon the death of king John, Ber- 
tram found means to make his peace with Hen. III. and for 1 
fine of iool. obtained a reftitution of his lands, and afterwards 
grew into fo much efleem with the king, that he granted, on the 
payment of 10 marks, that his annual fair at Mitford fhould 
lafl eight days inflead of four. He died 26th of Hen. III. 

Roger Bertram, the third of that name, fucceeded to the 
barony. He complained againfl Roger de Merley, that he held 
plea in the county court for a weekly market at Morpeth, to 
the damage of his market at Mitford ; whereupon the king 
directed his precept to the iherirTs of Northumberland, Hugh 
de Bolbec and Alon de Kirkby, to flop the fuit, as not belong- 
ing to the cognizance of their court, and not being within their 
jurifdic~lion. He was one of the northern barons fent by K. 
Hen. III. to the affiftance of his fon- in-law, Alexander III. of 
Scotland, then imprifoned by his fubje6ls ; but five years after- 
wards appearing in arms againfl the king at Northampton, with 
the other barons, he was taken prifoner, and his honour and 
caflle of Mitford, with all his other lands, feized for the king's 
nfe, of which an inquifition was then taken : and they with 
the caflle were committed to the cuflody of William de Valence, 
earl of Pembroke. The caflle and two parts of the forefl of 
Felton were given by the queen dowager, mother of K. Edw. 
I. to Eleanor Stanour, the wife of Robert de Stoteville, who 
died 34th of K. Edw. I. and was fucceeded by his fon and heir 
at the age of 24, as was found by an inquifition then taken. 
The caflle and lands were then valued at 35 s. 

In the year 131 6, this caflle was in the pofTemon of one 
Gilbert Middleton, a freebooter, who, fays Stowe, after many 
damages done to the priory of Tinemouth and others, was 
taken in his own caflle at Mitford by William Felton, Thomas 
Hetton, and Robert Hornecliff, carried to London, and there, 
in the prefence of the cardinal, drawn and hanged : and in the 
year 1318, it was taken, together with moft of the caflles in 




Northumberland, by Alexander, king of Scotland, who de- 
stroyed it. 

About this time the entire barony of Mitford was the pro- 
perty of Adomar de Valence, earl of Pembroke, who held it 
in capite of the king, by the fervice of paying for the cornage 
to the caftle of Newcaftle-upon-Tyne, by equal portions, 3 1 s. 
4-d. at the two feafts of St, Cuthbert, as appears by the efcheats 
of the 1 7th of Edw, IL The fame record fays, his caftle of 
Mitford was then in ruins, having been, as an inquifition from 
Edw. II. fays, deftroyed by fire, when taken by the Scots. Of 
the pofterity of Adomar Valence, earl of Pembroke, it has been 
recorded, that from the time he fate in judgment with the 
other lords, on Thomas, earl of Lancafter, none of them ever 
faw his father till after the 13th of Rich. II. 1390. The heirs 
of this earl was John de Haftings, Johanna, the wife of David 
•de Strabolgy, earl of Athol, and her fifter Elizabeth Camim 
The earl of Athol, in right of his wife, had this barony, ex- 
cept that part of it which was fettled on the countefs dowager 
for life. By an inquifition taken at his death, it appears the 
caftle ftill continued in ruins. 

The barony on his deceafe devolved to his fon David, who 
granted to John de Mitford the manor and lands of Mollefton, 
near Mitford, 43d of Edw. III. At his death he left behind 
him two daughters, Elizabeth, aged 7 years, and Johanna aged 
6 years ; the firft afterwards married to fir Thomas, and the 
youngeft to fir Ralph Percy. The latter having no heirs, the 
entire barony of Mitford and the Athol eftate centured in fir 
Henry Percy, fon of fir Thomas and lady Elizabeth. He died 
the nth of Hen. VI. and left two daughters, Elizabeth aged 
20, and Margaret 1 7 years; thefe being co-heireffes divided the 
barony. The eldeft firft married Thomas Brough, Efq. by whom 
(he had a fon named Thomas : fhe afterwards married fir Wm. 
Lucy, knt. and died 28th Sept. 34th K. Hen. VI. and was fuc- 
ceeded in her half of the barony of Mitford-by her fon and heir, 
Thomas Brough, Efq. The younger fifter, Margaret, firft married 
'fir Henry Gray, by whom ihe had one fon, Henry, and after- 

K k wards 


wards fir Richard Veers, Knt. She died 24th Sept. 4th of 
Edw. IV. and was fucceeded in her half by her fon Henry. 

The caftle and manor of Mitford were, according to Leland, 
in the pofTefTion of lord Burgh, in the reign of Hen. VIIL 
poffibly as reprefentative of the eldeft daughter; ana afterwards 
devolving to William lord Burgh, he in the 4th of queen Mary 
granted to Cuthbert Mitford, and to his fon Robert, for ever, 
all his lands at Mitford, referving to himfelf only the fite of 
the caftle and the royalties ; which caftle and royalteis were in 
the crown in the reign of K. James I. who granted them to 
James Murray, earl of Annan ; and on their reverting again to the 
crown, in the reign of Cha. II. they were granted by that king 
to Robert Mitford, Efq. whofe defcendant Robert Mitford, Efq. 
is the prefent proprietor. 

This caftle ftands in a park not far from the river Wanf- 
beck, and is elevated on a mount feemingly artificial : very little 
of it is remaining ; it never having been repaired fince its de- 
ftruction by the Scots in the time of K. Edw. II. " Mr. Hut- 
chinfon in his view of Northumberland, thus defcribes this 
caftle. The ancient caftle of Mitford is a rude heap of ruins, 
fituate on a confiderable natural eminence; defended towards 
the north and weft by a deep ditch, and on the fouth the river 
Wanfbeck wafhes the foot of the caftle hill ; the works appear 
to cover about an acre of ground. The principal part of this 
fortrefs confifted of a circular tower raifed upon an artificial 
mount, the chief elevation from the natural level being ef- 
fected by arches of ftone and vaults, which in ancient times 
were ufed as prifons or places of concealment. The tower was 
. defended by an outward wall, which ran parallel with it, 
at the diftance of about 10 feet. There is a very narrow prof- 
peel: from this eminence, the vale is fo lhut up on every fide. 
What other erections were within the walls of this fortrefs can- 
not be traced, the ruins are fo confufed, and moft of them 
covered with grafs." Not far from thefe ruins ftands the 
manor-houfe, and alfo the church, which was granted by K. 


m mmmm 1 


Edw. I. to the priory of Lanercoft, in Cumberland. In the 
chancel is a large mural monument of one of the Bertrams, 
decorated with his arms, and having the following infcription: 

Here lyeth interred with- from a race of worfhipful 

in this molde, a generous and antiquitie. Loved he was 

■virtuous wight, whofe in his life-fpace, of high ' 

dewe deferte cannot be eke of Iowe degree. Reft 

told from {lender ikil unto Bartram in this Houfe of clay 

his right. He was defcended reuf 'ley unto the latter day. 

Underneath is his effigies cut in relief on the ftone cover of 
his tomb, his hands lifted up as in the action of praying ; on 
the edge of it are in capitals thefe lines : 

Bartram to us fo dutiful a fon 
If more were fit it Ihould for 
thee be done, who deceafed 
the 7th of October anno domini 

This view was drawn anno 1773° 


1 HE ancient obeliik, called the monks ftone, mentioned in 
the account of the Tinemouth priory, is here delineated. It 
flood in a field about two miles north-weft of Tinemouth. 
A gentleman refident in the neighbourhood remembers it 
Handing, though in a tottering condition, and much out of 
the perpendicular ; he thinks it was then near ten feet high. 
It has lately been thrown down and broken ; two pieces of it 
are now remaining, one of which, meafuring three feet and a 
half, has been fet up; the other, of about three feet, is the 
part here reprefented as lying on the ground. The fquare 
ftone, with a cavity, is the pedeftal in which the obeliik was 
fixed. On this pedeftal is the infcription. The characters, 
however, feem more modern than the obeliik. To enable the 



reader to judge how far this conjecture is juftly grounded, an 
exact copy of them is engraved under the platq. 

This monument is of whin ftone, its plan what is called an 
oblong fquare. It is greatly injured by time and weather; be- 
fides which, the country people have punched it fo full of 
round holes, and otherwife fo defaced it, as not only to render 
its ornaments unintelligible, but alfo to make it doubtful whe- 
ther all its fides, or only the two broadeft were ornamented. 

From a pafTage in the Northumberland MS. cited in Bambo- 
rough caftle, it appears, that the land whereon the pig ftone 
ftands, was in the 14th of Edw. II. called Rod Stone More, and 
in another Le Crofs Flat, both allude to a crofs probably carved 
on the ftone here mentioned. Rod or rood fignifying a crofs. 
This view was drawn anno 1773. 


J. HIS was the antient baronial caftle of the lords of the ma- 
nor and town of Morpeth, built, as appears from the efcheats 
of the 33d of Edw. III. by William lord Greyftock, who died at 
Branfpeth, in the bifhopric of Durham, the 32d of Edw. III. 
anno 1358. He likewife built the caftle of Greyftock. 

In his iffue this caftle and eftate continued, till the male line 
failing, it was about the beginning of the reign of Hen. VIII. 
carried into the family of the Dacres, by Elizabeth baronefs of 
Greyftock, who married Thomas lord Dacre, of Gifland ; from 
whence it palled, about the time of Elizabeth, into that of 
Howard, by the marriage of Ann, one of the coheirs of George, 
the laft lord Dacre, with William Howard, third fon of Tho- 
mas duke of Norfolk. In his defcendants it ftill remains, being 
at prefent the property of the right honourable Frederick earl 
of Carlifle. 

Morpeth caftle was entire in Leland's time, as is evident 
from his defcription of it, which runs in the following words : 
0i Morpet, a market town, is xii long myles from Newcaftle. ■■ 



Wanfbeke, a praty ryver rynnithe throwghe the fyde of the 
towne. On the hethar fyde of the ryver is the principal! 
churche of the towne; on the fame fyde is the fayre caftle 
ftondinge upon a hill, longinge, with the towne, to the 
lord Dacres of Gilftand." And again: " Morpith caftle fton-. 
dythe by Morpeth towne ; it is fet on a highe hill, and about 
the hille is muche wood. The towne and caftle belongeth to 
the lord Dacors. It is well mayntayned." 

This caftle ftands about a quarter of a mile fouth of the 
town and river Wanfbeck, on an eminence which overlooks 
them both. The part remaining, and reprefented in this view, 
feems to have been the gate-houfe. On it are parts of two 
watch turrets. It is built of fquared ftone. In it are ftairs af- 
cending to the top; from whence there is a moft delightful 
profpecl. North-weft of this gate, at about an hundred yards 
diftance, is an artificial mount of no mean height. From the 
extent of the bounding walls ftill left (landing, and the traces 
of former buildings, this caftle feems, when entire, to have 
been a confiderable edifice both for ftrength and extent ; and, 
by the finifhing of the workmanlriip, appears to have well 
deferved the epithet of Fayre given it by Leland. 

It alfo feems to have been a place of ftrength as late as the 
reign of king Charles I. when it was occupied by the Scots 
army, who, according to a pamphlet, printed anno 1644, were 
driven from thence by the marquis of Montrofe, as alfo from 
the fortreffes of fouth Shields, Durham, Lumley caftle, Bly- 
therock, and other places near Sunderland. 

This view, which reprefents the north-weft afpect, was 
drawn anno 1773. 


NORHAM, or the north Hamlet, anciently called Ubban- 
ford, lies at the northernmoft extremity of the county. The 
caftle ftands on an eminence of the eaftern bank of the river 

L 1 Tweedj 



Tweed, near the influx of the river Till. It was built in the 
year 1121, 22d of Hen. I. by Ralph Flambard, bifhop of 
Durham to ierve as a frontier garrifon againfl the Scots, and 
to protect the country from the incurfions of the Mofs troopers. 
Probably there had before been fome kind of fortification to 
cover and defend a church erected by Egfrid. The fituation of 
this fortrefs made it much expofed to the attacks of the Scot- 
tish borderers; and among the many ruptures with that nation, 
fcarce any happened wherein it had not fome principal fhare, 
being conftantly befieged, and frequently taken and retaken by 
both parties. Some of the moft material I fhall here mention. 

In the reign of K. John, about the year 1214, this caftle, 
according to Ayfcu, was taken by the Scots, who wafted the 
country thereabouts, but fled on the approach of the king's 
army. Other authors fay, Alexander II. came before it with 
a great army, anno 1216, and in vain befieged it for 40 days; 
but at length was obliged to raife the fiege with difgrace : whe- 
ther the event of the fame attack is thus differently related, or 
it was twice befieged, feems doubtful. 

In the reign of king Edw. II. it was again befieged by the 
Scots. The following curious circumftances reflecting that 
fiege are related in Leland's Collectanea: " The Scottes came 
yn to the marches of England, and deftroyed the caftles of 
Werk and Herbotel, and overran much of Northumberland 
marches. At this tyme Thomas Gray and his friendes defended 
Norham from the Scottes. It were a wonderful proceflfe to de- 
clare what mifchiefes cam by hungre and alleges by the fpace 
of xi yeres in Northumberland; for the Scottes became fo 
proude after they had got Berwik, that they nothing efteemed 
the Engliihmen. About this tyme there was a greate fefte 
made yn Lincolnfhir, to which came many gentilmen and 
ladies ; and amonge them one lady brought a heaulme for a 
man of were, with a very riche crefte of gold, to William Mar- 
mion, knight, with a letter of commandment of her lady, that 
he fhould go into the daungeruft place in England, and ther 



to let the heaulme to be feene, and knowne as famous. So he 
went to Norham ; whither withyn 4 dayes of cumming cam 
Philip Moubray, guardian of Berwicke, having yn his bande 
140 men of armes, the very flour of men of the Scottifh 
marches. Thomas Gray, capitayne of Norham, feynge this, 
brought his garifon afore the barriers of the caftel, behynde 
whom cam William, richly arrayed, as al glittering in gold, 
and wering the heaulme, his lady's prefent. 

Then laid Thomas Gray to Marmion, " fyr knight, ye be 
cum hither to fame your helmet: mount up on yor horfe, and 
ryde like a valiant man to yowr even here at hand, and I forfake 
God if I refcue not thy body deade or alyve, or I myfelf wyl 
dye for it. Whereupon he took his curfore, and rode among 
the throng of ennemyes ; the which layed fore ftripes on hym, 
and pullid hym at the laft oute of his faddle to the grounde. 
Then Thomas Gray, with al the hole garrifon lette prike yn 
emong the Scottes, and fo wondid them and their horfes that 
they were overthrowen ; and Marmyon, fore beten, was hor- 
fid agayn, and with Gray purfewid the Scottes yn chafe. There 
were taken 50 horfe of price; and the women of Norham 
brought them to the foote men to follow the chafe. Thomas 
Gray himfelf killed one Cryne, a Fleming, an admiral, and 
great robber on the fe, and yn hy favor with Robert Brufe. 
The relidew that efcapid were chacid to the nunnes of Berwik. 

Adam de Gordon, a baron of Scotland, cam with 160 men 
to dryve away the cattle pafturing by Norham, but the young 
men of the countrey thereaboute encountered with them, 
whom Thomas Gray feeing to Hand in jeopardy, went oute 
with only 60 men, and killed moft parte of the Scottes and 
their horfis. 

This fame Thomas was tuife afligid yn the caille of Norham 
by the Scottes, one tyme by the fpace almoft of an yere, the 
other VII. monithes. His ennemies made fortreffes before the 
caftel, one at Upfedelington, another in the church of Nor- 
ham. The caftle was tuife vitailied by the lord Percy and Ne- 


ville, that bccam very noble men, and riche and great forcorers 
of the marches of England. The utter ward of Norham cartel 
was ons taken yn Thomas Gray's tyme, on the vigile of St. 
Catharine, but they kept it but three days, for theyr purpofe 
yn myning fayllid them." The Scots laid fiege to it again in 
the fame reign, and took it; but anno 1322 it was retaken by 
king Edward after a fiege of ten days. Anno 1326, the Scots 
attempted to make themfelves matters of it by treachery ; but it 
was faved by the vigilance of Robert Manners, then governor 
thereof, who had received information of the intended plot 
from a Scottifh foldier. It fuftained two other fieges, one in 
the year 1497, w ^ en it was refcued by the earl of Surry, and 
another in the reign of Hen. VIII. when, according to Wallis, 
it was recovered by the prowefs and policy of Mr. Franklin, 
archdeacon of Durham, for which he had a coat of arms 
granted him in the 22d year of that king. The damage fuf- 
tained in thefe attacks made great and frequent repairs necef- 
fary; and we accordingly find it was almofr. rebuilt, and ; 
ftrengthened with a ftrong tower, by Hugh Pudfey, biihop of 
Durham, about the year 11 64; again by Edward II. about the 
year 1307 ; and in the reign of QJMary, by biiTiop Dunftal. It is 
however at prefent, through age and neglect, entirely ruined. 
Many others there doubtlefs were, though not recorded in 

It was certainly a place of magnificence as well as flrength, 
at leaft according to the notions of grandeur of thofe days, 
for feveral of our kings refided here occahonally ; and it was 
the fcene of two great folemnities; for here both K. John and 
Edw. I. received the fealty of homage of Alexander and John 
Baliol, kings of Scotland. 

In the year 1 1 77, K. Hen. II. made William de Nevil confta- 
ble of this caftle, and Roger de Coniers likewife. confltable of 
Durham tower, both whjch he had taken away from Pudfey, 
then biihop of Durham, becaufe he had ferved him deceitfully 
in his wars. Hereupon that biihop, to regain his good-will, 



and that his caftles might not be levelled with the ground, 
agreed to give him 2000 marks of filver. 

In the reign of Rich. I. and Hen. III. this bifhopric was 
in the hands of the crown, as appears by Madox's hiftory of 
the Exchequer, and in the accounts of Gilbert Fitz Rainfrey, 
and Rich. Briewerre, Rich, de Mercis, and Matter Anketill, 
who were entrufted with the cuftody thereof. Under the firft, 
there is reckoned, for the keeping of the caftle of Norham, 
" xxix 1. vis. vind. and during the latter reign, Stephen de 
Lucy charges xnl. due for ward money for two years for the 
faid caftle. 

Some of the vaults and prifons of this edifice (till remain, as 
alfo part of the fide wall of the chapel, and a large tower at 
the north -eaft end of it, under which a pleafant fountain 
iffues out of the rocks. " The manors of Norham and Nor- 
hamfhire (fays Wallis) with the filheries in the river Tweed, 
and all their franchifes, were granted to Q^ Elizabeth by Rich. 
Barnes, bifhop of Durham, who made no fcruple to rob St« 
Cuthbert to make round portions for his daughters. Her 
majefty granted the caftle, the tithes and demefnes of Nor- 
ham, to fir Robert Cary, earl of Monmouth, for his own life, 
and the lives of his two fons. His lordfhip fold them for 6000I. 
and the furniture of the caftle for 800 1. to George Hume, earl 
of Dunbar ; a nobleman (fays lord Orrery) of an excellent cha- 
racter." The manor of Norham is now in the pofTeffion of 
fir Thomas Haggerfton of Haggerfton, bart. The caftle and 
its demefnes confifting of 1030 acres, as furveyed about the 
year 1751, and extending eaftward on the banks of the Tweed 
near two miles, belong to Robert Fenwick of Lemington, Efq, 
in right of his wife, Mrs. Fenwick, one of the daughters and 
coheirs of the late William Ord of Sandy-bank, Efq. They 
are held of the lord of the manor, paying only the caftle rent. 
This view was drawn anno 1768. 




X HE remains of this fmall chapel, or oratory, ftands in a 
fhady folitude, on the north bank of the Wanfbeck, about 
three quarters of a mile weft of Bothall, in a fpot admirably- 
calculated for meditation. It was probably built by one of the 
barons of Ogle, as their coat armorial, cut on a ftone efcut- 
cheon, is fixed againft the outfide of the fouth wall. This 
efcutcheon is at prefent reverfed, owing to the ignorance of a 
mafon, who was employed to replace it, it having fallen 
down. The whole is built of well wrought free-ftone, and 
meafures eight yards in length, and in breadth four. The 
roof, which was alfo of ftone, is now deftroyed : but the place 
thereof is fupplied by trees, which grow out of its very foun- 

This chapel, and the delightful woods in which it ftands, are 
the property of his grace the duke of Portland. This drawing, 
which exhibits the fouth-weft afpect, was made anno 1773. 


^RUDHOW, or Prudhoe caftle, the baronial caftle of the 
ancient family of the Umfranvilles, and afterwards for many 
ages one of the caftles of the Percies, is pleafantly fituated on 
the brow of a hill on the fouth fide of, and near the river 
Tyne, eight miles weft of Newcaftle. Camden is of opinion, 
that this place is the Protolitia, or Procolitia of the Romans, 
which was the ftation of the firft cohort of the Batavi. With 
this barony Robert de Umfranville was infeoffed by K. Hen. I. 
who gave him the royal privileges and franchifes of Reeds-dale, 
and the caftles of Otterburn and Harbottle. The caftle of 
Prudhow he held by the fervice of two knights fees and a 
half; and Reeds-dale, by that of defending it from thieves and 




In the reign of Henry II. anno 1 1 74, Odonel de Humfran- 
ville was owner of this caftle, when it was befieged, but in 
vain, by William king of Scots, who was obliged to raife the 
fiege. Sir William Dugdale in his baronage fays, according to 
the monk of Tinemouth, in the 18th of Henry II. "This 
Odonel greatly oppreffed and plundered his neighbours, in 
order to repair the roof of his caftle of Prudhow, prefuming on 
his own eminence, and the interefl he was poffefTed of, by 
having married his daughter to one high in the king's favour." 
He held this caftle till his death, which happened in the 28th 
of Hen. II. 

He was fucceeded by Robert de Umfranville ; and in the 
14th of K. John, the caftle devolved to Richard, who delivered 
up his four fons and his caftle of Prudhow as pledges for his 
fidelity; notwithftanding which, he put himfelf in arms among 
the barons, in the 1 7th of the fame reign, the confequence of" 
which was, that his caftle and lands were given to Hugh de 
Baliol. But in the fucceeding reign of Henry III. he obtained a 
reftitution thereof: but he never had the confidence of that 
king, who was offended at, and diftrufted him on account of, 
his fortifyiug his caftle of Harbottle. He died nth Hen. III. 
having given one toft and eight acres of land in the town of 
Prudhow to the monks of Hexham. His fon Gilbert fucceeded 
to his barony, who is ftiled by our hiftorians, " the famous 
baron, the flower and keeper of the northern parts of Eng- 
land." He dying 30th of Hen. III. anno 1245, nac ^ f° r fucceflbr 
his fon of the fame name, who held the barony, with its feve- 
ral members, viz. Hedley, HafTeley, Wythil, &c. &c. by the 
accuftomed fervices. He founded a chantry in the chapel of 
Our Lady, at his caftle of Prudhow, and endowed it with: two 
tofts and 118 acres of land, and 5 acres of meadow, for the 
maintenance of two chaplains to perform divine fervice daily 
therein. This Gilbert was, by K. Ed. I. made earl of Angus in 
Scotland, and under that title fummoned to parliament, anno 
1297. The lawyers at fiift refufed to acknowledge him as an 

earl 3 


earl, becanfe Angus was not of this kingdom; but fubmitted 
on the fight of the king's writ, wherein he was fummoned by 
that title. He died ift of Ed. II. feized of the barony and all 
its members, leaving Robert de Umfranville his fon and heir ; 
whofe fon Gilbert, 25th Ed. III. exhibited a petition to the king 
and his council affembled in parliament, fetting forth, that he 
and his anceflors, time out of mind, ufed to have cuftody of 
all prifoners taken within the liberty of Reedfdale, to be kept 
in his prifon of Harbottle caftle ; which being fo ruined by the 
Scots wars that it was infufficient to retain them, he defired he 
might have leave to keep all fuch prifoners in his caftle of 
Prudhow, till that of Harbottle could be properly repaired. 
The king being fatisfied that the fact alledged in his petition 
was true, and confidering that the ruinous ftate of Harbottle 
caftle did not arife from neglect, granted him leave to keep 
fuch prifoners in his caftle of Prudhow for ten years. 

This earl Gilbert died, without iffue, in 1381, having had 
by his wife, Maud, daughter and heir of Thomas lord Lucy, a 
fon named Robert, who, altho' he died before his father, had 
been married to Margaret, daughter of Henry the fecond lord 
Percy of Alnwick, but without iffue. It feems to have been in 
confequence of the fettlement made at this marriage, that the 
caftle and barony of Prudhow afterwards defcended to the Per- 
cies. For " it appears among the pleas in the king's bench, 15 
Hen. VI. and 9 Roll, upon a traverfe then tendered by Henry 
earl of Northumberland, that John Hawboroughe and John 
Pykworth, anno 49 Ed. III. gave to Gylbert Humfravell and to 
Mawde his wife, and to their heirs lawfully begotten, the faid 
caftle and barony ; and the manor of Ovingham : and for lacke 
of fuch iffue the faid caftle, manor and barony, to remain to 
Henry lord Percy, and to his heirs for ever." 

In confequence of this difpohtion, after the death of earl Gil- 
bert, his widow, the countefs Maud, enjoyed it for her life. 
She married to her fecond hufband Henry Percy, firft earl of 
Northumberland, who after her death entered into full poffef- 



fion of the caftle and barony, with its appendages; and the 
fame have continued in his pofterity, without any other inter- 
ruption, except what Was occafioned by the attainders in diffe- 
rent periods. Thus, on the forfeiture of the faid firft earl of 
Northumberland, and his fon Hotfpur, in the reign of K. Hen. 
IV. the caftle and lordfhip of Prudhow were beftowed by the 
faid king, (6th Hen. IV.) on his fon John, afterwards duke of 
Bedford and Regent of France, who appears to have held them 
till his death, except for a fhort time, viz. 4th Hen. VI. when 
Ralph earl of Weftmoreland was poffefTed of the manor of 
Prudhow. So again, in the 28th of Henry VI. the caftle of 
Prudhow was in pofTeflion of Sir John Bertram, knight, but 
afterwards the whole reverted to the Percies, till they under- 
went another attainture for their adherence to the houfe of 
Lancafter in the 4th year of Ed. VI. and then the caftle of 
Prudhow was given to fir William Bertram, knight, anno 5th 
Ed. IV. After the reftoration of Henry fourth earl of Nor- 
thumberland, this caftle and barony were again given back to 
the Percies ; and tho' their pofTeflion of it fuffered again fomc 
fhort interruptions from future attaintures in the reigns of K. 
Hen. VIII. and of Q^ Elizabeth; yet the caftle and barony of 
Prudhow have conftantly defcended with their other great 
poffeflions thro' the fucceeding earls of Northumberland down 
to their illuftrious reprefentatives the prefent duke and duchefs ; 
by whofe favour this hiftory of Prudhow caftle after it came 
into the pofTeflion of the Percies, has been extracted from the 
archives of their noble family: and the editor owes his beft 
thanks to Thomas Butler, Efq. and Henry Collingwood Selby, 
Efq. agents to their graces, for making the faid extracts, and 
furnilhing the materials of this account. 

C. & P. A defcription of Prudhoe caftle, from an old furvey 
of " all the caftles, baronyes, lordihipps, mannors, landes, 
tenements, and hereditaments" of the earl of Northumberland, 
in the county of Northumberland " taken in April, 1586, &c„ 
by virtue of a commiflion of the faid eaiie to Robert Delavall, 

N n William 


William Carr, James Ogle, and Cuthbert Carnaby, Efqrs. 
Thomas Bates, and W. William Stockdale, gents, directed, 
bearing date at the lodging of the faid earle, in the Old Ex- 
chainge, in London, the 8th day of March, 1585, &c." 

The above is the general title of the book, but it appears 
from folio 269, that the furvey of Proudhow was taken the 
5th of Auguft, 1596; from which are the following ex- 
tracts, viz. 

[After defcribing the boundary of the barony of Proudhoe] 
comes the fcyte and defcryption of the caftle. There is an old 
ruinous caftle walled about, and in forme not much unlike to 
a fhield, hanging with one poynte upwarde, fcituate upon a 
high moate of earth, with ditches in fome places, all wrought 
with man's harides, as it feemeth, and is content of all the fcite 
of*, with a little garden plat, and the banckes by eftimacon, 
fs. iij acr . 

The faid caftle hath the entrey on the fouth, where it hath 
had two gates, the uttermoft now in decay, and without the 
fame is a litle turne-pyke ; and on the wefte parte a large gate- 
tqwne, where there hath been a paffage into the lodgeings there 
fcituate without the caftle (as is fuppofed) or to the chappell 
: there " {landing, and between the gates is a ftrong wall on both 
fydes, and as it appeareth, hath been a draw-bridge ; and with- 
out the fame, before it come to the utter gate, a turne-pyke, 
for defence of the bridge.. The gate is a tower, all many 
worke on both fydes to the top of the vault; above the vault is 
the chappel f ; and above the chappel a chamber, which is 
■called the wardrobe; it is covered with lead, but in great ruine, 
both in leade and timber; it is in length, tenn yeards, and in 
breadth fix yards, or thereaboutes. 

There is oppofite to the faid gatehoufe-tower joyning to the 
north-wall'of the faid caftle, one hall of 18 yeards of length, 
and 9 yeards of breadth, or thereabouts, within the walls, 

* Sic MS. t Sic. 



covered alfoe with lead, albeit the tymber and leadein fome 

Between the faid gate-howfe and hall, on the left hand, 
at your entry in at the gate, is a howfe of ij° houfe hight, of 
length xxiiij or . yeards, in breadth fix yeards, • or thereaboutes, 
devided into two chambers, covered with flate ; the lower houfe 
hath a great room to pafs out of the court through that houfe 
to the great tower ; and the fouth end a chamber, called 
the parlour; and in the north end a little buttery. In the 
houfe is two chambers, called the utter chamber, and inner 
chamber ; out of the utter chamber * is a paffage to the great 
tower, by a little gallary ; on the other fyde, a paffage down to 
the buttery. Out of the inner chamber is a paffage to the 
chappell; and on the other fyde a paffage to a houfe called the 

On the weft parte of the faid houfe is another little houfe, 
{landing eaft and weft, upon the fouth wall, called the nurfery, 
in length tenn yeards, and in breadth fix yeards, or thereaboutes, 
of two houfe height, covered alfoe with flate. At the fouth- 
weft corner is a houfe ftanding north and fouth, called the 
garner, adjoyning to the weft wall, in length tenn yeards, in 
breadth fix yeardes, of ij° houfe height; the under houfe a 
ftable, the upper-houfe a garner, covered alfo with flate. At 
the north-weft corner of the faid caftle is a little tower, called 
the weft tower, of thre houfe height; round on the outride ; 
in length feven yeards, or thereaboutes, covered with lead, but 
in decay both in lead and tymber. 

Joyned to the faid tower is another houfe of two houfe 
height; in length nine yeards, in breadth fix yeardes, or 
thereaboutes, covered with flate, but much in decay, In the 
middle of thefe houfes, by itfelf ftandeth the great tower, one 
way xviij °. yeardes, another way xij °. yeardes, north and fouth, 
of 3 ftoryes onely and of height xv 9] yeards, or thereabouts. 

* Sic. 



befides the battlements. It hath noe vault of ftone in it; it is 
covered with lead, but in fome decay of lead and timber; but 
necefTary to be repaired ; and a toofall, or a litle houfe adjoyn- 
ing thereunto, in utter decay. 

At the eaft end of the hall is a houfe, called the kitchen, of 
one houfe height; in length xij yeards, in breadth fix yeards, 
dim. or thereaboutes, covered with Hate. In the eaft end, 
as it were at the lower poynt of the fhield, is a litle fquare 
tower, in length vij yeards, in breadth v. yeards, or there- 
abouts, covered with lead, but in utter ruine and decay both 
in timber and lead. Adjoyning to the fame is a houfe, 
called the brewhoufe, in length viij yeards, and in breadth 
vij yeards, and covered with flate. There is within the 
fcyte, and without the walls, an elder chappell, which hath 
been very fair and covered with flate. In the tyme that 
diverfe dwellers were on the demeynes, one dwelled in the 
faid chappell, and made it his dwelling-houfe, and byers for 
his cattell, and by that means defaced, faving the tymber, 
walls, and greate parte of flate remayneth. There is alio within 
the precincls of the fcyte a little milne ftanding at the caftle 
gate. There is under the moate on the northfyde, a barne, 
two byers, and other fuch, an old kill and kill-houfe ; all which 
were builded and repaired by Thomas Bates, in the xx yeare 
of the queenes majefties reigne, yt now is, and yet now in his 
late abfence decayed. There was an orchard, fett all with fruit 
trees, now all fpoyled ; and an old houfe, wherein the keeper 
of the orchard did dwell. This view was drawn anno 1772. 


JL HIS caftle ftands a fmall diftance fouth of the roman wall, 
near the borders of Cumberland, on the edge of a rock, weft 
of and overlooking the fmall river Tippel : it is built upon 
arches, its walls are in fome places above eight, and in others 
nine feet thick, and feems folely calculated for the purpofe of 



defence, the fmallnefs of its windows rendering it too dark for 
the comfortable refidence of a family. The weft end has been 
demolilhed for the fake of the ftones, with which the neigh- 
bouring cottages have been conftrudted. 

At the entrance part of an iron gate was very lately re- 
maining. In 1759 on the removing fome rubbiih within the 
caftle, the flooring of a room was difcovered confifting of three 
tier or courfes of flags, one above the other, each feparated by 
a ft latum of fand. Fordon in his Scotti Chronicon, fays it 
derived its name from the following occurrence. 

A. D. 376, the Scots having by a victory obtained pofTeflion 
of the countries on the north fide of the wall, began to inha* 
bit them, and fuddenly auembling a ruftic mob, armed with 
fpades, mattocks, ihovels, pitchforks and other inftruments 
of hufbandry, made many breaches and paflages therein, by 
which they could eafily pafs to and fro. From thefe openings, 
which in the Engliih language are pronounced Thirlit-wall, it 
took its prefent name, fignifying in Latin the pierced walL 
Mr. Wallis fays the place where the Scots made this breach, 
ftill retains the name of the gap. Probably this caftle with 
the neighbouring fortifications of turf, were made to prevent a 
like infult. 

Thirlwall caftle, was anno 1333, 7 Ed. III. the property 
of John de Thirlwall. And in the 10th of Elizabeth belonged 
to Robert de Thirlwall. The laft proprietor of that family 
was Elenora, married anno 1738, to Mathew Swinburne, Efq. 
by whom the caftle and its demefnes were fold to the earl of 
Carlifle. This view which was drawn anno 1774, fhews the 
fouth afpe£t of the caftle. 


1HESE buildings ftand almoft at the northernmoft extre- 
mity of the county, and near the junction of the rivers Till 
and Tweed, The moft ancient account of this caftle occurs in 

O o the 


the efcheat roll for the county of Northumberland, where, in 
the 4th of Edw. III. it appears to have been the lordfhip and 
feat of fir William Ridcll, who had alfo the hamlets of Dud- 
how, and Grindon, which he held of the bifhop of Durham 
at an annual rent of twenty marks, and by the performance of 
fuit and fervice at the epifcopal court at Norham. 

It came afterwards into the pofTeffion of a branch of the 
ancient family of the Selbys, and was, in the 6th of K. Edw. VI. 
held by fir John Selby, a commhTioner for inclofures of the 
eafl marches, and deputy .warden of the eaft marches under 
Henry lord Hunfdon in the reign of Q^ Elizabeth. This fir 
John Selby claimed a fiihery in the river Tweed, called. Til-, 
moutllhaugh Fifhery; but his claim was not allowed by the 
commiffioners, who, anno 1553, were appointed to adjuft and 
fettle the claims and differences between the borderers, they 
adjudging it to belong to the leffee of the priory of Coldftream 
in Scotland, and that the lord of the manor of Twizell had 
only a right to ufe and occupy a ring net, and to Itand on a 
place called Fillifpotte, upon the fouth fide of the river. His 
fon William Selby had the manors of Brankfton, Moneylaws, 
Shotton, Lowich, and half the foreft of Cheviot. 

At prefent this caftle belongs to Francis Blake, Efq. and 
has lately been repaired and augmented in the ancient (tile. 
The river Till, which runs beneath it, is croffed by a hand- 
fome ftone bridge of one arch, nearly femicircular, being in 
fpan 90 feet 7 inches, and 46 feet two inches in height, mea- 
fured to the top of the battlement. This bridge is faid to have 
been built by a lady of the Selby family. It was in being in 
Iceland's time, and is by him thus defcribed in his Itinerary : 
*' So to Twifle bridge of ftone, one bow, but greate and 
ftronge, where is a townlet and a towre." 

At Grindon, near this place, a victory was gained over the 
Scots in 1558, by Thomas Percy, feventh earl of Northumber- 
land, and his brother fir Henry Percy, when many of the 
Scots were drowned in this river. On a rifing ground near 



Grindon, about a quarter of a mile fouth from Sandybank, and 
in fight from it (according to Wallis) are four upright ftone- 
pillars, funeral memorials of the chieftains flain in that ac- 

The fame reverend author in his hiftory of Northumberland 
thus defcribes the environs of this caftle and bridge : " Under 
the houfe is a range of rocks, cavernofe, fringed with various 
petrifications of mofs and other fmall plants, formed by drip- 
pings of water from the roof and crevices ; a natural alcove in 
one part of it, the mofs-plants on the fides variegated and 
gilded by thofe petrifying drops, a fhort upright ftone in the 
center, in party-coloured lapideous cloathing, and hollow at 
the top by their continual falling; a fine view through the 
arch of the bridge of a Hoping bank of hawthorn, in blofTom 
beautiful; the north-weft fide of the bridge adorned with large 
quantities of pellitory of the wall ; an upright rock of a great 
fize, and tapering to the top, about 20 feet high, a little below 
the bridge on the edge of the Till ; a fountain near it, confe- 
crated to St. Helen, and by it an ancient fepulchre, faid to 
have belonged to the family chapel." This plate, which exhi- 
bits a fouth view of thefe edifices, was drawn anno 1768. 


JL H I S plate exhibits a nearer and more particular view of 
the only part of thefe ruins which appears ever to have be- 
longed to a caftle, or building for defence. Indeed, this place 
feems to have derived more of its ftrength from its fituation 
than from any artificial fortification. It is, as has before been 
faid, inacceffible on the north and eaft fides, and very advan- 
tageoufly fituated to the fouth, where it is alfo furrounded by 
a double wall: to the weft it was defended by the ftrong 
machicolated gate here fhewn, with its ditch and draw-bridge. 
On this fpot there feems, by different accounts, to have 
been a caftle, or place of ftrength, perhaps in the Saxon times, 



before the monaftery, but certainly as early as the reign of 
William Rufus, when Robert Mowbray took refuge therein. 
It then and afterwards belonged to the earls of Northumber- 

In the Tinemouth MS. at Northumberland houfe, this 
place is mentioned as walled and fortified for defence, 3d of 
Rich. II. 

In Peck's Defiderata Curiofa, Tynemouth caftle is men- 
tioned in the lift of caftles, bulwarks and fortreffes, garrifoned 
in the reign of Q^ Elizabeth; whereby it appears, here was a 
mafter gunner at eight-pence per diem, and fix inferior gunners 
at fix-pence per diem each. 

When Camden wrote his Britannia it was in good repair, 
as may be gathered from his defcription of it : his words are, 
"It is now called Tinemouth caftle, and glories in a ftately 
and ftrong caftle." 

During the civil war this place was again converted into a 
fortrefs, and was befieged and taken by the Scots, anno 1644, 
when 38 pieces of ordnance and great ftore of arms, ammu- 
nition, and provifions, fell into their hands; the garrifon were 
allowed to march out with their baggage, but bound them- 
felves to fubmit to the inftructions of the parliament. Six 
prifoners made their efcape under favour of a violent ftorm of 
wind, by letting themfelves down through a privy-houfe, with 
ropes lengthened out by feveral fheets tied together. 

The fum of 5000 1. was ordered by parliament to repair it, 
and the works-at— Newcastle, the town-wall, bridge, and gar- 

Polonel Henry Lilburne was made governor of it, who, 
with his lieutenant-colonel and moft olf the garrifon, declared 
for the king ; the news of which reaching Newcaftle, fir Ar- 
thur Hazelrig, governor of that place, immediately, with the 
forces under his command, marched againft it, and after a 
fmart defence, wherein Colonel Lilburne and others were llain, 
took it. The befiegers wanting fcaling-ladders, entered through 



the embrazures and port-holes, in the face of the guns playing 
againft them. As foon as th'ey were mafters of the fort, quar- 
ter was given to the garrifon. 

On the right-hand, after parTing through the gate, there is a 
fmall building of brick, feemingly a guard houfe or magazine* 
This is undoubtedly of later date than the reft of the building. 
This view, which reprefents the infide of the gate, as it appears 
from the north-wall, was drawn anno 1773. 


( Plate I. ) 

JL HE time when this monaftery was firft founded, as well as 
the founder, are both uncertain; a pafTage in Leland's Collec- 
tanea, vol. 3, page 24, fays, That Edwin, king of Deira, or 
the county between the rivers Humber and Tees, who reigned 
about the year 627, built a chapel of wood at Tynemouth, 
wherein his daughter Rofetta took the veil ; and that this 
chapel was afterwards rebuilt by St. Ofwald, with ftone. Tan- 
ner, in his account of this houfe fays, " among the monafteries 
and churches founded by St. Ofwald, the firft chriftian king of 
Northumberland, this is reckoned to be one, tho' others af- 
-cribe its foundation to king Ecgfrid." Altho' the exadt era of 
its foundation cannot be afcertained, there are neverthelefs 
fumcient proofs of its great antiquity, infomuch that, accord- 
ing to the learned author laft cited, " 'tis evident that St. 
Herebald, the companion of St. John of Beverley, was monk 
and abbot here, in the beginning of the eighth century.'* This 
houfe in its infancy fuffered greatly by the incurfions of the 
Danes, by whom it was thrice plundered; once in the eighth 
century, again in the next, by Hunguar and Hubba, when the 
church was burned to the ground, and a third time, in the 
reign of Ethelftan ; and this fpot, called by the faxons Penbal- 
crage, or the rock of the walls head, from the Roman wall, 

P p which 


which it is faid ended hereabouts, was, for fome time, occu- 
pied by thefe robbers, as a poft for the convenient landing and 
embarking on their piratical expeditions. 

After they were driven hence, the damaged buildings lay 
unrepaired and in ruins, 'till the reign of Edward the confenor; 
when Tofti, earl of Northumberland, rebuilt them, and en- 
dowed the priory for black canons, dedicating it to the honour 
of the Virgin Mary and St. Ofwin, the remains of that faint 
having been found among the ruins. Thefe were afterwards 
tranflated to Jarrow, by the permiflion of Waltheof,, earl of 
Northumberland, but again brought back to Tynemouth, from 
whence they were once more removed to Durham, by Agel- 
winas, bifhop of that fee, in the year 1065. 

This convent was fucceffively made a cell to the monafteries 
of Jarrow, Durham, and St. Albans ; to the firft by Waltheof,, 
earl of Northumberland, to the fecond by earl Albry, and to , 
St. Albans, by Robert da Mowbray, who, about the year 1090,, 
repaired the church and offices, and placed therein black 
monks from that abbey; which he did, as it is faid, out of a 
particular enmity to the bifhop of Durham. This earl engag- 
ing in a confpiracy againft William Rufus, he was attacked by 
that king before matters became ripe for action; hither he fled,, 
and here for a while defended himfelf, but finding that he 
could not hold out, he took fanctuary at the altar of the 
church, from whence he was taken by force and carried to 
Windfor, where, after funering a tedious imprifonment, he 
was put to death. 

By the donations of a multiplicity of benefactors, this houfe 
had 27 villas in Northumberland, with their royalties, viz,, 
Tynemouth, Milnton, Shields, Eaft Cherton, Eaft Prefton, 
Monkton, Whitley, Murton, Erefdon, Backworth, Seghill, 
Wolfington, Diflingtpn, Elfwick, Wylam, Hertford, Cowpon, 
Bebfide, Welden, Hauxley, Ambfell, Eglingham, Bewick,, 
Lilburn, Flatworth, Middle-Cherton, and Weft Cherton:. 



within thefe lordfhips, they returned the king's writs, and 
were exempt from Cornage. 

Besides thefe, they had diverfe valuable lands and tenements,, 
tythes, impropriations and advowfons, with feveral immunities : 
alio, a weekly market at the town of Berwick, an annual fair 
at Tynemouth, and an harbour, ftill called the priors harbour,, 
now much reforted to in fummer, for bathing. Thefe poffef- 
fions and privileges were confirmed to them by the patents of 
many of our kings, from Hen. I. to Edw. IV. A chantry was- 
founded in this church, anno 13 15, by Ralph, fon of William 
lord Greyftock. Altho' poffeffed of this vaft revenue,, they did 
not fail to lay hold of every opportunity of increafing it ; as 
appears from the following traditionary ftory, which is corro- 
borated by a monument, ftill in being, in the neighbourhood 
of Prefton : 

A monk of this monaftery, ftrolling abroad, came to the 
houfe of Mr. Delaval, an anceftor of the ancient family of that 
name ;. that gentleman was then abfent on a hunting party, but 
was expected back to dinner. Among the many difhes pre- 
paring in the kitchen, was a pig, ordered purpofely for Mr. 
Delaval's own eating.. This alone fuiting the liquoriih palate 
of the monk, and tho' admonifhed and informed for whom it 
was intended, he cut off the head, reckoned by epicures the 
mod: delicious part of the animal, and putting it into a bag ' 
made the beft of his way towards the monaftery. Delaval, at 
his return,, being informed of the tranfaction, which he looked 
upon as a perfonal infult, and being young and fiery, remount- 
ed his horfe, and fet out in fearch of the offender; when over- 
taking him about a mile eaft of Prefton, he fo belaboured him 
with his ftaff, called a hunting gad, that he was hardly able to 
crawl to his cell.. This monk dying within a year and a day,, 
altho', as the ftory goes, the beating was not the caufe of his 
death, his brethren made it a handle to charge Delaval with 
his murther ; who, before he could get abfolved was obliged 
to make over to the monaftery, as an expiation of this deed,. 



the manor of Elfig, in the neighbourhood of Newcaftle, with 
feveral other valuable eftates ; and by way of amende honorable, 
to fet up an obelifk on the fpot where he fo properly corrected 
the monk; on the pedeftal of which is engraved the following 
infcription : " O horror, to kill a man for a pigges head!" 
this monument is called the Monk's (tone. Elfig was made the 
fummer retreat of the priors of Tynemouth. 

This ftory, like many others of the like kind, is very defec- 
tive in feveral parts ; no date is affixed; and tho' the above- 
mentioned monument, which will be given in this work, is 
fhewn in fupport of it, it feems difficult to account for this 
monk being fo far from his monaftery, as going abroad, efpe- 
cially alone, was ftrictly prohibited by their rules ; and this not 
being a mendicant order, he could not be going on the queft : 
the only method of reconciling it, is, to fuppofe that this 
worthy perfonage was a lay-brother, and fervant to the houfe 

perhaps the fteward. It however, fhews how dangerous 

it was to injure the meaneft retainer to a religious houfe ; a 
peril very ludicroufly, tho' juftly exprefTed in the following old 
Englifh adage, which I have fomewhere met with: " Yf per- 
chaunce one offend a freeres dogge, ftreight clameth the whole 
brotherhood, an herefy, an herefy." 

At the dinolution, the annual revenues of this priory were 
eflimated, feparate from the abbey of St. Albans, on which it 
depended, at 397I. 10s. $d. obDugdale; 511I. 4s. id. ob Speed. 
The fite and moft of the land were granted 5th. of Edw. VI. to 
John Dudley, duke of Northumberland ; but by his attainder 
in the next reign it reverted to the crown, in which it remained 
10th Elizabeth. The manor of Tynemouth, at this time be- 
longs to the prefent duke of Northumberland. But the fite of 
the monaftery is faid to belong to the crown, and was held under 
a leafe, by Colonel Henry Villars, formerly governor of Tyne- 
mouth, who obtained permifhon to erect a light-houfe, and to 
receive is. for every Englifh, and 6d. for every foreign fhip 
anchoring in the harbour of Shields; which, it is faid, pro* 




produces annually about 80 1. The leafe at prefent belongs to 
his widow. This view, which ihews the north-welt afpect of 
the conventual church, was drawn anno 1773. 


1 HIS monaftery is fituated on a high rocky point, on the 
north fide of the entrance into the river Tyne, about a mile 
and a half below north Shields. This fituation, though in 
fummer very pleafant, muft in winter, or tempeftuous weather, 
have been extremely bleak and uncomfortable, particularly to 
perfons of advanced age ; fuch as the generality of monks were. 
Indeed this objection was made to it by Waltheof, who is faid 
to have declared it an unfit place for devotion, being too horrid 
and uncultivated for the habitation of religious perfons. 

Substantial as thefe objections appear, they were amply 
compenfated by an advantage arifing from that very fituation,, 
which the monks undoubtedly felt, and knew well how to 
avail themfelves of. The exalted rock on which this monaf- 
tery flood, rendered it vifible at fea a long way off, in every 
direction, whence it prefented itfelf as if reminding and exhort- 
ing feamen in danger to make their vows, and promife mafles 
and prefents to the Virgin Mary and St. Ofwin for their deli- 
verance. Vows of this kind were common among the an- 
cients, and are to this day made by the roman catholics, the 
walls of whofe churches are covered with fhips, boats, and 
other votive memoranda. Erafmus, in his piece entitled, The 
Shipwreck, has very humoroufly defcribed and ridiculed this 

cuftom of bribing heaven in cafe of fudden emergencies. ■ 

In Germany, below almoft every dangerous fall, or pafTage of 
the Rhine, there is a hermitage, whofe hermit or his agent 
waits on the paffengers in the boat as foon as it has paffed fafely 
over, requefting alms as a reward for his prayers, to the efficacy 
of which they are informed they owe their fafety. Something 

Q^q like" 


like this, perhaps, might be practifed by the monks, from 
which undoubtedly they received many emoluments, both in 
gifts and money, for the celebration of maffes ; efpecially as th* 
entrance into Shields harbour is at certain times both difficult 
and dangerous. 

This priory is built with reddifh (tones, and feems to be the 
work of different periods ; many of the arches being circular, 
and fome pointed. The whole appears to have been highly 
finifhed, and very magnificent. The chief remains are thofe of 
the church, at the eafl end of which is a fmall, but extremely 
elegant chapel or oratory, its height and breadth each meafur- 
ing nine feet; its length, eighteen. It is adorned with inter- 
fering arches, and the ceiling ornamented with figures in 
relief, reprefenting chrift and the twelve apoftles. Thefe are 
enclofed in roundels, or circles, having an infcription under 
each of them in the old text hand : both thefe and the figures, 
are as fair and perfect as when firft executed. This chapel is 
lighted by a round window. On each fide of the door are two 
heads, in a flile much fuperior to that of the general tafle of 
the age in which they are fuppofed to- have been done ; and 
over the. fame door, on the infide, are two efcutcheons charged 
with fome of the quarterings ufually born by the Percys ; fome 
of whom, perhaps, erected this oratory, or were poffibly con- 
fiderable benefactors to the monaftery. 

The church once ferved as the parifh church; but being 
much decayed, and the parifhioners in the civil war being de- 
barred the liberty of a free refort to it, another was begun in 
the year 1659; which was afterwards finifhed and confecrated 
by bifhop Conns, anno 1668. Many families continue to bury 
in the cemetery here ; although there is a burial-place at the 
new church. There is flill {landing here a flrong fquare gate- 
way, having fmall turrets, like guerites, at each angle. It was 
formerly fenced by a ditch, over which there was a draw- 
bridge; but thefe have long been demolilhed. There are flairs 
leading to the top of a building, from whence there is a moft 



cxtenfive profpect Durham Abbey, as it is faid, is vifible in 

a fine day. 

Much of thefe buildings have been pulled down by Mr. Vil- 
lars, for erecting the barracks, light-houfe, his own houfe 
near it, and other edifices; he likewife ftripped off the lead, 
which till then had covered the church. This I was informed 
by an ancient man who lived near the fpot; and who likewife 
faid a great deal, particularly a long gallery, had fallen down 
of itfelf. Towards the fouth fide this monaftery feems to have 

been furrounded by a double enceinte of walls. The graves 

of many perfons faid to be flain in the fiege, are frequently 
vifible in a dry fummer without the walls of this place. 

To this houfe thefe two remarkable perfons formerly belong- 
ed : John Wethamftede, abbot of St. Albans, a learned hiflorian, 
once a monk of this priory, who, after his promotion,, pfe- 
fented it with a gold chalice of great weight. John of Tyne- 
mouth, an eminent facred biographer, born at Tynemouth; 
and, as it is faid, once a vicar of this church. In this view, 
which was drawn anno 1773, and reprefents the north fide of 
the cliff, the following buildings are fhewn : that which ap- 
pears nearer! the right hand is the gate; farther, towards the 
left, is the tower of the church; and near the point is the 
light-houfe, and houfe built by Mr. Villars. 

The annexed lift of the priors, with an account of the pen- 

fions, is given by Browne Willis, Efq. Remegius, 1092; 

William de Bedford, 11 24; Thomas Le More, 1340; John 
Langton, 1451; Thomas Gardiner, 1528. 

Robert Blaceny was prior at the difTolution, at which time 
he, with fifteen prebendaries and three novices, furrendered 
this houfe 12th January, 1539, 30th Hen. VIII. and had a 
penfion of 80 1. per annum affigned him, anno 1553, here re- 
mained in charge 37I. 12s. in annuities; and thefe penfions, 
viz. Thomas Caftle, 61. 13s. 4d. Henry Woodall and Robert 
Bolland, 61. each; Robert Gatefhed and Robert Foreman, 5I. 
6s. 8d.; William Cadifle, Stephen Hayman, Anthony Gardi- 



ner, George Jafpar, Clement Weftminfter, and Robert Lon- 
don, 4I. each. Thomas Durham, Robert Charite, and George 
Faith, 2I. each. 


THIS caflle ftands proudly elevated on an eminence adjoining 
to the fouth end of the town of Warkworth ; its weft fide 
overlooks the river Coquet, which, after almoft furrounding 
it, at the diftance of about a mile empties itfelf into the fea. 
Nothing can be more magnificent and piclurefque, from what 
part foever it is viewed ; and though when entire it was far 
from being deftitute of ftrength, yet its appearance does not 
excite the idea of one of thofe rugged fortreffes deftined folety 
for war, whofe gloomy towers fuggeft to the imagination only 
dungeons, chains, and executions ; but rather that of fuch 
an ancient hofpitable manfion, as is alluded to by Milton : 

Where throngs of knights and barons bold 
In weeds of peace high triumphs hold. 

Or, as is defcribed in our old romances, where, in the days of 
chivalry, the wandering knight, or diftrefled princefs, found 
honourable reception and entertainment, the holy palmer re- 
pofe for his wearied limbs, and the poor and helplefs their 
daily bread. 

The caftle and mote, according to an ancient furvey, con- 
tained 5 acres ij\ perches of ground. Its walls, on the fouth, 
eaft, and weft fides, are garnifhed with towers. The great 
gate of the caftle is on the fouth fide, between two polygonal 
towers, and is alfo defended with machicolations. 

The keep, or dungeon, forms the north front ; its figure 
is a fquare, with the angles canted off. Near the middle of 
each face of this fquare there is a turret, projecting at right 
angles, its end terminating in a femi-hexagon ; thefe projec- 


tions are of the fame height as the reft of the keep. This keep 

is very large and lofty, and contains a variety of magnificent 

apartments ; above it rifes a high watch-tower commanding an 

almoft unbounded profpect. On the north-fide, next the ftreet* 

are feveral figures of angels bearing armonial fhields : and at 

the top of the turret, in the middle is carved in bas relief, a 

large lion rampant. When Leland wrote his Itinerary, this 

caftle was in thorough repair: his words are, " Warkworth. 

caftell ftondythe on the fouth fyde of Coquet water ; it is well 

maynteyned, and is large." At that time, the Percy family was 

under attainder, and Warkworth, &c. in the hands of the 

crown ; during which, this caftle was probably neglected, and 

fell into the decay defcribed in the following furvey, taken 

about the year 1567, when the family had been reftored but a 

few years. As this furvey contains an exact and curious def- 

cription of the building of the caftle, I lhall print it at large, 

together with fome particulars relating to its demolition ; all 

which have been communicated to me by permiflion of their 

graces the duke and duchefs of Northumberland, being preferved 

among the archives of their illuftrious houfe* 

Extract from a Survey, by Geo. Clarkson*, 1567. 

" The caftell of Warkworth ys fituate on the ryver of Coc~ 
kett : on the fouth fyde of the fame ryver ys one little mount 
parteley maid by nature of the ground, with the courfe of 
the fayd ryver on the weft fyde, and on the eaft and north fyde 
with moytes caften and made by mens worke ; and one the 
fowth parte ys the way and paffadge to and from the fayd caftell 
by two feverall wayes ; one of the which two pafTadges were 
good to be mad upe ; that ys the way that goyth towardes the 
fowth by the loyninge were moft expedyent; thendes of the 
fayd loyninge ftrongly ditched, caften, or made with ftone 

* One of the auditors to the then earl of Northumberland, 

R r wall, 


wall, and the hye ftreate to be made to goo thorow the de- 
maynes, and the fame caften in a loyning there with a ftrong 
quickwoode hedge caften of eyther fyde ; the ftones of th' old 
cawfey taken awaye, and a cawfey newly made within that 
ground of the fayd demaynes, viz. from the north end of a 
meadow-clofe called Tybbettes clofe, eaft-ward, to one hye 
waye that goyth to the gate of the demaynes, and alonge the 
fame waye to the fayd gate; which myght be done with fmall 
charge ; and that done, the parke wold not only be on that 
fyde well inclofed, the dear have feedinge nighe the gate of 
the fayd caftell, but alfo yt mold be a great ftrength to the 
fayd parke, caftell, and groundes joyninge upon the fame, a 
better paffadge than that now ys in all refpects, and hurt no 
perfon, fo that the Tame were well and orderlye done or made. 

" The buyldinge of the fayd caftell on the fowth parte, is 
thre towres : viz. The gate-houfe towre, in the middle thereof; 
which is th' entrye at a draw-bridge over drye moyte : and in 
the fame towre ys a prifon, and porter lodge ; and over the 
fame a fare lodginge, called the conftables lodginge; and in 
the courtayne between the gatehoufe and weft towre in the 
corner beynge round of diverfe fquares, called Cradyfargus, is 
a fare and comely buyldinge, a chapell, and diverfe houfes of 
office one the ground ; and above the great chambre, and the 
lordes lodginge : all which be now in great decay, as well in 
the coverteur beynge lead, as alfo in tymbere and glafs ; and 
without fome help of reparaciones it will come to utter ruin. 

" Turning north from that fouth-weft corner in that cour- 
tayn ftreatchinge to another little towre, called the pofterne 
towre, ys th' old hall, which was verie fare, and now by reafon 
yt was in decay, ys unroofed, and the tymbre taken downe 
lyinge in the faid caftell. In the fame fquare a buttrye, pan- 
trye, and kitchinge, which are now alfo in utter decay. And at 
th' entrye into the hall, for the porche thereof, is rayfed a 
little fquare towre wherein is two chambres, and on the forefyd 
in ftone portrayed a lyon verie workemanly wrought, and 



therefore called the lyon towre ; the fame is covered with lead, 
and in good reparacions. Th' other towre, called the pofterne 
towre, is two lodginges, under which goith owt a pofterne ; 
and the fame is coverd with lead, and in good reparacions. In 
th' eft fyde of the great hall was an ile fett owt with pyllers, 
which yet ftandeth, and covered with lead. From the gate-howfe 
towre to the towre in th' eft corner, called ys no buyld- 

inge, but onely a curtayne wall, fare and of a new buyldinge; and 
in that towre is a ftable one the ground, and thre lodgings above : 
the fame is coverd with lead, and in good reparacions. Turn- 
ynge from that towre towards the doungeon north, is another 
little turrett in the wall, ys fett upon that courteyn wall, ftables 
and gardeners over the fame coverd with flate, and in good repa- 
racions. Over the courte from the fayd towre, called the pofterne 
towre, to the faid turrett, is the foundacion of a houfe, which 
was ment to have been a colledge, and good parte of the walls 
werebuilded; which if yt had bene finiihed and made a parfit 
fquare, the fame had been a divifion betweene the faid courte 
to the lodgings before recyted, and the dungeon. The build - 
mge that was made of the fayd colledge is now taken awaye, 
favinge that certeyn walls under the ground thereof yet re- 
mayne : and at th' eaft part thereof is now a brewhoufe and 
bakhoufe, coverd with flate, and in good reparacions. In the 
fayd courte is a drawell which ferveth the nolle houfe of 
water. The dougion is in the north parte of the fcyte of the 
fayd caftell, fett upon a little mount highyer than the reft of 

the cowrte fteps of a greas before ye enter to 

yt : and the fame ys buyld as a foure fquare, and owt of every 
fquare one towre : all which be fo quarterly fquared together, 
that in the fight every parte appeareth fyve towres very finely 
wrought of mafon worke; and in the fame conteyned, as well 
a fare hall, kytchinge, and all other houfes of offices verie fare 
and apteley placed, as alfo great chambre, chapell, and lodgins 
for the lord and his trayn. In the middle thereof is a peace 
voy'd, which is called a lanterne ; which both receyveth the 



water from divcrfe fpowtes of the lead, and hath his conveyv 
ance for the fame : and alfo gevith light to certaine lodgings in 
fome partes. And on the parte of the fame at the top ys rayfed 
of a good hight above all the houfes a turret, called the watch 
houfe ; upon the top whereof ys a great vyew to be had, and 
a fare profpect, as well towards the fea, as all parties of 
the land. In the north part of the fay'd doungeon ys portrayed 
a lyon wrought in the ftone verie workmanly. 

" The caftle is envyroned on thre partes with the fayd ryver; 
and of the north parte, in an angle within the fay'd water, is 
fituate a towne, called the borowgh of Warkworth, and the 
parifh church : and at the north end thereof a bridge over the 
water, and a little towre buyld on th' ende of the fayd bridge 
wher a pare of gates ys hanged: and now the faid towre ys 
without roof, and cover ; and without amendment will in fhort 
tyme utterlye decay ; yt fhal be therefore very requifete that 
the towre be with all fpeed repaired, and the gates hanged upe, 
which fhall be a great favety and comoditye for the towne.'* 

This caftel (principally the buildings in the outer court) for 
want of repairs ftill growing more ruinous a warrant (as appears 
from an entry made in a book containing copies of commifTions, 
warrants, &c. on the earl of Northumberland's affairs) was 
granted to Mr. Whitehead, one of the ftewards to that earl, 
dated the 24th of June, 1608, "to take down the lead that 
lieth upon the ruinous towers and places of Warkworth to way 
it and lay it uppe, and to certify his lordihip of the quantity 
thereof, that the places where lead is taken off, be coverd 
againe for the prefervation of the timber." And in 1610 the 
old timber of the buildings in the outer court was fold for 28 1. 

In 1672 the dungeon or keep of the caftle was unroofed, &c. 
at the inftance of Jofeph Clarke, one of the auditors to the 
family, who obtained a gift of the materials from the then 
countefs of Northumberland. The following is a copy of a 
letter from him to one of the tenants ; 

" William 


" William Milbourne, beinge to take downe the ma- 
terialls of. Warkworth caftle, which are given me by the 
countefs of Northumberland to build a houfe at Chenton, I 
doe defire you to fpeak to all her ladilhipps tenants in Warke- 
worth, Birlinge, Button, Acklington, Shilbottle, Lefbury, 
Longhauton, and Bilton, that they will aflift me with their 
draughts as foone as conveniently they can, to remove the lead 
and tymber which fhall be taken downe, and fuch other mate- 
rialls as lhall be fitt to be removed, and bringe it to Cheuton, 
which will be an obligation to there and your friend. 

Newcaftle, 27 April, 1672. 

Jo. Clarke. 

To my Iovinge friend William Milbourne, 
at his houfe at Birlinge. 

IN regard they are like to be out three days ere they gett home, I fhall be 
content to allowe every wayne half a crowne, and let me know who 
refufe to doe me . . . they 

This view, which reprefents the north afpe£t of the cattle* 
Was drawn anno 1773. 


Warkworth was formerly the barony of Roger Fitz- 
Richard, who held it by the fervice of one knight's fee. It 
was granted to him by king Hen. II. together with the manors 
of Corbrig, &a Thefe were confirmed to him by Rich. I. He 
married Elianor, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Henry de 
EfTex, baron of Raleigh and Clavering, and had by her Robert, 
furnamed Fitz-Roger, to whom king John, in the firft year 
of his reign, confirmed the grant of the fee of inheritance of 
the caftle and manor of Warkworth, with the appurtenances 
made by his father, as beneficially and as intirely as it was 

S s held 


held by Hen. I. And in the fifth and fixth year of his reign 
that king likewife granted to the faid Robert the manors of 
Newburn, Corbrig, and Rothbury ; refpecting the lad was a 
claufe, prohibiting any one to hunt in the foreft thereunto be- 
longing without licence from the faid Robert, or his heirs, 
under the penalty of forfeiting to them all the horfes and dogs 
concerned in fuch trefpafs, and alfo a fine to the king of i o 1. 

This Robert died about the 1 2th of king John, leaving iffue 
by Margaret, daughter and fole heirefs of William de Caifen- 
netto alias Cheney, and relict of Hugh de CrefTy, one fon, 
called John, and furnamed Fitz-Robert ; to whom king John 
in the 14th year of his reign confirmed the caftle and manor of 
Warkworth, to be held by the accuftomed fervice of one 
knight's fee ; alfo the manors of Rothbury, Corbrig, Clavering, 
and divers others, under the fame fervices and conditions by 
which they were held by his father. He married Alda, heirefs 
of Hugh de Baliol, and left at his death 3 fons ; the eldefl of 
which, Roger Fitz-John, fucceeded to the inheritance of his 
baronies and manors : he died feifed thereof ^3 Hen. III. leav- 
ing iflue Robert, furnamed Fitz-Roger, the 2d of that name, 
an only child, and at the time of his death very young : this 
Robert married Margaret, daughter of the lord de la Zouch, 
and dying in the 3d of Edw. II. left an only fon, named John, 
who took upon him the name of Clavering, leaving the 
ancient fafhion of framing furnames out of the Chriftian names 
of their fathers ; this, according to Camden, was in obedience 
to an order made by king Edw. I. 

This John de Clavering, in confideration of a grant for life 
of certain crown lands in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and 
Northampton, eftimated at 405I. 2s. id. per annum, with the 
confent of Hawifia his wife, made over to king Edw. II. the 
reverfion in fee of his barony and caftle of Warkworth, with 
the manors of Rowbury (Rothbury) Newburne, and Corbrig* 
then valued at 700 1. per annum, provided he mould die with- 
out iflue male : this reverfion king Edw. III. in the 2d year of 



his reign (John de Clavering being then living) granted to 
Henry de Percy and his heirs, to be held by the accuflomed 
fervices ; which grant was 2 years afterwards confirmed by the 
parliament ; and John de Clavering dying that year, the kin? , 
directed by his writ, dated the 24th of January, that the feve- 
ral baronies and manors lhall be delivered to him, which was: 
accordingly done. This grant was in lieu of a fee of 500 marks 
which the king had engaged to pay to fir Henry Percy, ther* 
governor of Berwick, during life, as the chronicle of Alnwick 
abbey fays, out of the cuftoms of Berwick ; which flipend was 
by agreement to ceafe as foon as Percy became pofTefTed of thefe, 

In the Percy family Warkworth caftle continued, being- 
handed down from father to fon, all of the name of Henry,, 
till the 8th of Rich. II. anno 1384, when the Scots having 
taken the caftle of Berwick, by bribing the perfon to wfiomi 
Henry Percy firft earl of Northumberland had entrufted th<£ 
keeping thereof, the duke of Lancafter, then a great enemy to 
that nobleman, accufed him of treafon before the lords, and 
even procured his condemnation and the confequent conhfcatio n\ 
of his eftates ; but the earl having re-taken Berwick, and mad.e 
his innocence apparent, was again reftored to his honours and 

In the fucceeding reign of king Hen. IV. when that king 
quarrelled with the Percys, who had helped him to the crown, 
this caftle was taken from the earl of Northumberland, and 
beftowed upon fir Robert Umfreville, knt. in whofe pofTefTion 
it continued till the reftoration of the Percy family in the fuc- 
ceeding reign. John Harding, the author of the old metrical 
chronicle, who was conftable of Warkworth caftle at that time, 
mentions a very remarkable circumftance, viz. that the Perc}f 
family, in taking up arms againft king Hen. IV. had been 
excited to this meafure by their brother peers, who afterwards 
deceived th^iru I f&all give Harding's own words, as they 



occur in the the title or argument of his cciii chapter. London, 
1543, 4to. 

" For the erle of Marche his right, fir Henry Percy, and 
fir Thomas Percy his uncle, earl of Worcefter, faughtwith the 
kyng, and were flain at the battaill of Shrewefbury, (in 1403) 

where all the lordes deceived them that were bounde to 

them by their feales, except the earl of Stafford : whiche let- 
ters I fawe in the caftell of Werkeworth, when I was conftable 
of it, under my lorde fir Robert Umfreville, who had that caf- 
tell of kyng Henry his gift, by forfeiture of the erle of Nor- 

After the reftoration of the Percy family, in the 2d year of 
king Hen. V. this caflle continued in pofTeffion of the earles 
of Northumberland ; till, at the conclufion of the civil wars of 
York and Lancafter, this great family was again attainted,, 
being: involved in the ruin that attended the houfe of Lancafter, 
to which they were firm adherents. Accordingly, in the firfl 
parliament of king Edw. IV. Henry Percy, fon of Henry Percy, 
?d earl of Northumberland, who had been flain at the battle 
of Towton-field, was attainted, and the eftates forfeited were 
given away to gratify fome of the principal adherents to the 
houfe of York. 

But this cloud foon blew over; for in the 12th year of king 
Edw. IV. in the parliament held at Weftminfter in October 
6th, the king fitting in the chair of ftate in the painted cham- 
ber, this fir Henry Percy was reflored in blood to the earldom 
of Northumberland (of which he was 4th earl) and to all fuch 
hereditaments of Henry Percy his father, the late earl, as came 
to the king's hands ; and the attainder was made void. 

These eftates then reftored, among which was Warkworth 
caftle, were fuccefhvely enjoyed by his fon and grandfon, the 
cth and 6th earls of Northumberland; but on the death of 
the laft of thefe they came again into the poffeflion of the crown. 
For fir Thomas Percy, knt. brother and heir to Henry Percy, 
6th earl, having been executed and attainted for being con- 


cerned in what was called Afke's rebellion, anno 29 Hen. VIII 
1538, the earl his brother had, with a wife precaution, left all 
his eftates to the crown, in order to keep them entire, till the 
family fhould be again reftored. 

Accordingly fo it happened; for the execution and attain- 
der of John Dudley, who had been created duke of Northum- 
berland by king Edw.VI. the Percy family was again reftored, in 
1557, to all their honours and eftates in the perfon of Thomas 
Percy, fon of fir Thomas abovementioned, whom queen Mary, 
t>y her letters patent (dated 3 and 4 Philip and Mary) advanced 
to the dignities of baron Percy, &c. and earl of Northum- 
berland ; and reinftated him in all the eftates of his anceftors 
that were then in the crown ; of which the barony and caftle 
of Warkworth were a part. But this Thomas, who was the 
7th earl of Northumberland, unfortunately engaging with the 
earl of Weftmoreland, in the great northern infurrection againft 
queen Elizabeth in 1569, was, after having been kept prifoner 
in Scotland two years, delivered up to the queen's officers in 
the north, and beheaded at York on the 22d of Auguft 1572. 

However, by virtue of the intails in the laft creation, the titles 
and eftates were not forfeited to the crown by the attainder of 
earl Thomas, but defcended to his brother Henry Percy, eighth 
earl of Northumberland ; and paffed through his feveral fuccefr 
fors, till at laft the earldom became extinct, on the death of Jof- 
celine Percy, the 1 ith earl, who died without iffue male in 1670; 
but the baronies and eftates devolved (in right of his mother, 
the lady Elizabeth Percy, only daughter of earl Jofceline, and 
wife of Charles duke of Somerfet) to Algernon Seymore, duke 
of Somerfet, who during the life of his father took his feat in 
the houfe of peers as baron Percy, &c. But this nobleman 
(having then only one daughter, Elizabeth, wife of fir Hugh 
Smithfon, bait.) was in the 23d of George II. 1749, created 
baron Warkworth of Warkworth caftle, and earl of Northum- 
berland, with remainder to his fon-in-law fir Hugh Smithfon ; 
who on the death of the faid duke Algernon, thus fucceeded 

Tt to 


to the earldom of Northumberland, and his lady became in 
her own right baronefs Percy, Lucy, Poinings, Fitz-Payne, 
Brian and Latimer. With thefe titles defcended the great 
eftates of the Percy family in Northumberland and this caftle 
and barony of Warkworth. 

After this fhort hiftory of the inheritance, &c. of the caftle 
of Warkworth, it may only be needful to add, that its beautiful 
fituation and elegant ftructure rendered it, for many ages, the 
favourite refidence of the Percy family. Mod of the earls of 
Northumberland appear to have refided here, when their affairs 
required their prefence in Northumberland; and their larger 
caftle of Alnwick (which is only 10 miles from Warkworth) 
was rather ufed as a military fortrefs, and filled with a garrifon, 
than as a place of domeftic abode. 

For the account of the manner in which this caftle and 
barony came into poffeflion of the Percy family, extracted from 
the original records in his keeping, I am indebted to Thomas 
Butler, Efq. F. S. A. principal agent to the duke and dutchefs of 
Northumberland, and clerk of the peace for the county of 

Anno 1322, it appears by the account of Roger de Waltham 
before cited in the article of Bamborough caftle, that Robert 
de Dareys was then conftable of this caftle, and furnifhed 26 
hoblers out of his garrifon for the army of Edward II.. raifed 
againft the Scots. 


AS an inland county, which before the arrival of the Romans Was inhabited by 
the Coritani, and after their eftablifhment was included in their province of Flavia 
Gsefarienfis, which extended from the Thames to the Humber. During the Saxon 
Heptarchy it belonged to the kingdom of Mercia, the 7th eftabliflred, which began 
in 582, and ended 827, having had 18 kings ; it is ndw in the Midland Gircuit, the 
diocefe of York, and the province of the fame. It is bounded on the north by 
Yorklhire ; on the fouth by Leicefterfhire ; eaft by Lincolnfhire ; and weft by 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire. It is divided into 5 wapentakes and 3 divifions, has 
168 pariihes, 97 vicarages, 450 villages, 9 market-towns, viz. Nottingham the 
county town, Newark, Redford, Mansfield, Bingham, Southwell, Workfop, Tux-- 
ford, and Blithe.. It fends 8 Members to Parliament, pays 7 parts of the Land tax, 
and fupplies 480 of the national Militia* It contains 694 fquare miles, or 560000 
fquare acres, is 42 miles long,' 19 broad, and 140 in circumference. Its principal 
rivers are the Trent, Lynn, Ryton, Leane, Idle, Erift, Meden and Maun ; its 
woods are the Foreft of Sherwood, Vale of Belvoir, Thorney and Lindhurft wood; 
feveral fine parks ; and produces, paftures, barley, hops, corn, lead, ftockings, coal 
mines, canal coal, foft alabafter, liquorice, wood, game, malt, beer, &c. It is nearly 
of an oval form and the air is pleafant and wholefome. 



The Roman, Danifh and Saxon encampments in this county, are at Bridgford 
near Binham, at Collingham near Newark, at Barton near Nottingham, near Baw- 
try, and at and near Littleborough. 

The principal Roman road in this county, is the Fofle, a military way whofe 
courfe is from the fouth weft of England, to the north eaft, leading from the fea 
coaft of Devonfhire to Salt.fleet in Lincolnlhire; almoft in a direft line to War- 
wicklhire, thence to Leicefter town, and enters this county at Willoughby on the 
woulds 13 miles, the Marigdanum of Antoninus, in a field near which place, called 
Long Billington, Roman coins, See. have been often dug up, as well as in a field 
called Henings, where Mofaics have been difcovered. From thence the Itinerary 
•leadus to Ad Ponten 7 miles, now Bridgford on the Hill, in its way the Fofle pafles 
north eaft through the Vale of Belvoir. At Bridgford are vifible Roman remains, 
and near it a fpring called the Old-Wark fpring,and the field wherein the camp lies 
now called Burrowfield. In a pafture near the Fofle has been a large building, 
where bricks, coins, earthern pipes for water, &c, have been dug up. From Ad 
Ponten it is 7 miles to Crococolana, now Newark, and 3 miles further is Long 
Collingham. The next ftation in this county is Danum Littlebrough, now An- 
cafter, Segelorum. It then leaves this county and enters Lincolnlhire* 

A N T I QJJ I T I E S in this COUNTY worthy NOTICE. 

Blithe Church 
Cells in Nottingham Cliffs 
Folly Priory near Selfton 
Griefly Caftle near Eaft Wood 
Hardwicke Caftle hear Mansfield 
King John's Palace near Clipfton 
Newark Church and Caftle 
Nev/ftead Abbey near Mansfield 

Nottingham Church and Caftle 
Redford Abbey 
Ruins near Kirby 
Sebthorp Church near Bingham 
Southwell Church and Palace 
Thurgarfton Priory near Newark 
Welbeck Abbey near Workfop 
Wollaton Hall near Nottingham 


reparation of the faid pale, timber of the dry wood there, and 
taking every day for himfelf the parcars and making the faid 
pale yd. 

Galfridus de Kniveton, 16 July, 22d Hen. VI. was made 
keeper of the cattle at Nottingham, Rochingham, and manor 
of Clypfton, and the lodge of Befkwode, in Shirewood for 

This manor with Mansfield and Lyndeby were, by Hen. VI. 
fettled on Edmund, earl of Richmond and Jafper, earl of Pem- 
broke; but reverting to the crown, Hen. VIII. granted it to 
Thomas Howard, earl of Surry, when created duke of Norfolk ; 
and it fhortly after becoming again vetted in the crown, Edw. 
VI. gave it to John earl of Warwick and Henry Sidney, as the 
pofTeffions of Jafper duke of Bedford *, they having forfeited it, 
it remained fome time in the crown till the reign of James I. 
when it was paffed to the feoffees of Gilbert, earl of Shrewf- 

It afterwards belonged to the heirs of William and John, 
dukes of Newcaftle, and the manor and park is at prefent the 
property of his grace the duke of Portland. 

It appears from Thoroton's account, publiihed anno 1677, 
an 100 years ago, that very little more was then ftanding of 
this manfion, than is flill remaining. 

" There is, fays he, fcarcely any ruins left of the king's old 
houfe, except a piece of ftone wall." 

These ruins flood in a field about five acres, clofe to the vil- 
lage of Clypefton, and a quarter of a mile from the park, 
which is near eight miles in circumference, and was once fa- 
mous for its fine oaks, many of which, were deftroyed during*- 
the troubles under Charles I. 


C 163 ) 



IT Is not agreed by whom this palace was fir ft built ; fome fajr 
by one of the Booths, archbifhop of York, for there were two* 
of that name; William, who died anno 1464, and Laurence 
his half-brother, and fave one immediate fucceifor, who died 
in the year 1480; others attribute it's erection to the magni- 
ficent Wolfey, whilft archbifhop of this fee. In fupport of the 
firft opinion, reference is made to a chapel by the fonth wall 
near it, called at this hour Booth's chapel, fuppofed to be built 
at the fame time with the palace by one of the afore-named 
archbifhops. In favour of the contrary opinion, beftdes the 
tradition, it is urged that Wolfey was in general a great buil- 
der, and laid out much money in his fee. Probably truth may 
lie between both. The palace might have been firft founded 
by one of the Booths, but afterwards fo much repaired and 
added to by Wolfey, as to make it almoft a new edifice. 

Leland in his Itinerary fays of it, " The biihop of York 
hath ther a preaty palace," but mentions nothing concerning, 
its founder. It was fituated on the fouth fide of the minfter 
yard, within a park called little or new park, and was demo- 
lifhed during the civil war in the time of Charles I, The fite 
of the manor ftill belongs to the fee of York,. This view was, 
drawn anno 1776* 




V^lypestone, Clipflon or Kyngefclypefton lies on the weftern 
fide of the country, a fmall diftance north-eaft of Mansfield. 

Before the conqueft Clypfton belonged to Ofborne and 
Ulfi, and being taken from them, became the property of 
Roger de Bufti; after the conqueft it was the royal demefne, 
but when or by whom the manfion or palace was built is un- 
known ; it is mentioned in a record quoted in Madox's hiflory 
of the Exchequer, as early as the 29th of Hen. II. when 36s. 
and 6d. was laid out in utenfils for it, in obedience to the 
king's writ. 

King John frequently refided here, both while earl of Mor- 
tain and after his acceffion to the crown, as appears by feveral 
deeds dated at this place, particularly the charter granted by 
him to the town of Nottingham in the firft year of his reign,; 
by him the park is faid to have been added. 

Thoroton, in his hiftory of Nottinghamshire, fays, " Clipf- 
ton was burned it feems and repaired again before the 5th of 
Hen. III." but whether he means the king's houfe or the village 
feems doubtful. 

A parliament was held at Clypfton by Edw. I. anno 1290, 
whether in the king's houfe or elfewhere is not certain ; it is 
however at leaft probable that the king refided here at that 
time, and that the parliament was therefore aflembled at this 
place ; an ancient oak on the edge of the park, now bears the 
name of the parliament oak. 

Edward II. ufed alfo, at times, to retire hither, feveral writs 
recited by Madox being dated from Clypfton in the 9th year of 
his reign: Clypfton manor and park, fays Thoroton, 2d Edw. 
III. were by the king committed, during his pleafure, to be 
kept by Robert de C . . . . fo that he lhould anfwer to the 
exchequer for the ifTues, and keep the manor in repair at the 
king's coft, and the park pale at his own, receiving for the 




JL HIS caftle ftands on the eaftern part of the county. It was 
built in the reign of king Stephen by Alexander bifhop of 
Lincoln, who built alfo the caftles of Banbury in Oxfordlhire 
and Sleford in Lincolnfhire. 

Henry of Huntingdon fays, this caftle, emphatically called 
the New- work, gave name to the town. 

As thefe kind of military erections were deemed rather im- 
proper for an ecclefiaftic, the laft-cited author and William 
Parvus fay, that by way of expiation he founded alfo two mo- 
nafteries: but this did not fatisfy king Stephen, who having 
feized this bifhop and his uncle, did not releafe them till they 
had furrendered to him all their ftrong holds. 

The governor of this caftle refufed to deliver it up till 
directed by the bifhop in perfon, who informed him that the 
king had made a vow that he, the bifhop, fhould have neither 
meat nor drink till that fortrefs was furrendered. 

During the troubles in the latter end of the reign of king 
John, this caftle was in the hands of the royal party, and 
ftoutly defended for the king. 

The garrifon likewife frequently fallying out, wafted the 
lands and pofTefnons of fuch of the infurgent barons as lay 
in their neighbourhood; the dauphin therefore, to put a flop 
to their depredations, detached Gilbert de Gaunt, lately by him 
created earl of Lincoln, with a confiderable force, but he hear- 
ing of the king's approach at the head of a powerful army, 
retired towards London. 

In the mean time, the king having in his march over the 
wafhes loft a great part of his army, with his carriages and 



military cheft, all furprifed and overwhelmed by the tide, came 
to this caftle extremely fick, and in great anguiih of mind, and 
here ended his unfortunate reign, October the 19th, in the 
year 12 16. 

Stowe adds, " that immediately on the king's death, his 
fervants taking all that was about him fled, not leaving fo 
much of any thing (worth the carriage) as would cover his 
dead carkafe." 

At the acceffion of Hem III. this caftle was in the hands of 
the barons, being probably yielded to them by Robert de Gangi, 
governor thereof, in the former reign, in whofe keeping it was 

Henry directed it to be reftored to the bifhop of Lincoln* 
but with this order Gangi, under pretence of money due to 
him for victualling it, refufed to comply; whereupon the 
king, with William Marfhal, earl of Pembroke, laid fiege 
to it, but on the eighth day, by the mediation of friends* 
Gangi agreed to furrender the caftle to the bilhop on being paid 
an iool. fterling for the provifions with which he had fur* 
nifhed it. 

In the year 1376, in the reign of Edw. III. fir Peter de la 
More was imprifoned here at the inftigation of lord Latimere and 
fir Richard Stirie. 

In the year 1530 cardinal Wolfey lodged in this caftle with 
a great retinue, in his way to Southwell, where he fpent great 
part of that fummer. 

In Peck's Defiderata Curiofa, Newark caftle~ts mentioned 
among the other caftles of royal manfions belonging to queen 

The fee of the conftable is there ftated at 61. 13s. 4d. per 
annum, and that of the porter at 5L 

This caftle and town of Newark is particularly famous in 
hiftory for the firm adherence of its garrifon and inhabitants 



to the royal intereft during the whole time of the civil wars in 
England between king Charles I. and the parliament, when it 
formed a ftrong and moft ufeful poft, from whence many fuc- 
cefsful excurfions were made ; it proved alfo an occafional place 
of retreat for the king. 

It was twice unfuccefsfully befieged by fir John Meldrum t 
but furrendered on the 6th of May 1646, in obedience to the 
king's fpecial commands, when the lord Bellafis, governor 
thereof, obtained for himfelf and garrifon very advantageous 
and honourable conditions. This view, which reprefents. ths 
north afpect, was drawn anno 1776. 

f^f^tW^ r«My Buck 

'"•' ~"~ ~ ~. ...StohrrifC/iurtk ■ .. 

■■•,:d.-- - ^ HIRE 

Nate tkat the j~uie of eacli Square is 6 milej 


I T f n i|=m 

,i. pmuif p^l 

I 2. 3 4 5 6 

B . Hampton. 
T) . Jiloxham. 

E . BulLuigtan 
F -Cluulliiwtim. 
Or. DorcJie/ler 

I . l^vuftree' 
K. Le?tikner 
L/^Firtoa, i . 
- Walton. 


S an inland county, included in the principality of the Dobuni of the ancient 
Britons, and after the arrival of the Romans, in their province of Flavia Caefarienfis. 
During the Saxon Heptarchy it belonged to the kingdom of Mercia, which began 
in 582, and ended in 827, having had 18 kings : at prefent it is in the Oxford 
circuit and diocefe, and province of Canterbury, being divided into 14 hundreds,. 
280 parifhes, 92 vicarages, is 42 miles long, 26 broad, and 130 in circumference ; 
containing 663 fquare miles, 534,000 fquare acres, has 19,007 houfes, 120,000 
inhabitants, 451 villages, 1 city, Oxford, 12 market-towns, viz. Woodftock, Ban- 
bury, Barford, Chipping-Norton, Henley, Witney, Charbury, Deddington, Bi- 
cefter, Bampton, Tame and Watlington. This county is bounded on the north, 
where it ends in a cone, with Northamptonshire on one fide, and Warwickfhire on 
the other ; fouth by the Thames, which divides it from Berkshire ; eaft by Buck- 
inghamshire ; and weft by Gloucefterfhire. It fends 9 members to Parliament,, 
pays to parts of the land-tax, and provides 560 men to the .national militia. The 
principal rivers are the Thames, Cherwell, Ifis, Tame, Swere, Clim, Rea, Oke, 
Windrufh, Evanlode, and Sorbrook. The molt noted places are, the Chiltern 
Hills, Whichwood Foreft, Aftrop Wells, Rolhich Stones, Woodftock Park, Blen- 
heim , 


helm Houfe, and the Colleges of the Univerfity of Oxford. It produces paftures,. 
v corn, wood, cattle, game, malt, fruits, &c< blankets, and variety of river fifh. 
The air is healthy, and the foil dry, free from bogs, fens, and ftagriant water, but 
abounding with ftreams of excellent water. There are petrifying fprings at Alton 
and Summerton. 

The Roman, Saxon, or Danifh encampments in this county are at Alcheftcr, 
Deddington, Hook Norton, Tadmerton, a'nd Sarefden. 

The Roman roads in this county are the Ickneld-ftreet and Akeman-ftreet. 
The firft enters at Goreingford from Berklhire, and panes north-eaft to Chinner, 
where it enters Buckinghamfhire. The Akeman ftreet was a confular way, enters 
from Buckinghamfhire near Bicefter, panes through Woodftock Park, and croffing 
the rivers Charwell, Evanlode, and Windrufh, enters Gloucefterfhire fouth-weft 
of Burford. Another road is the remains of a vicinal way, called Grimes Dyke, 
which enters this county from Berkfhire near Wallingford, croffes the Thames* 
and running fouth-eaft, and croffing Ickneld-ftreet, palfes the Thames a fecond. 
time near Henley, and re-enters Berkfhire. 


Banbury Church * 

Broughton Caftie and Abbey 

St. Bartholomew's Hofpital near Oxford 

Beaumont Palace 

Bruern Abbey near Milton 

Chipping-Norton Church and Caftie 

Clattercote Priory near Banbury 

Cold-Norton Priory 

Deddington Caftie-. 

Dorchefter Church 

Ewhelm Palace near Watlington 

Synfham Abbey 

Friar Bacon's Study at Oxford 

Godftow Nunnery 

Iflip Chapel 

Ifley Church 

Minfter Lovel Priory near Witney 

Oxford Caftie 

Oxford Univerfity 

Raleigh Abbey 

Rollrich Stones near Chipping-Norton 

Shire Stones 

Stanton Harcourt Chapel, Kitchen, &*. 

Wroxton Abbey. 

( W«fl ) 



J. HIS tower ftands on a bridge called Grand Pont, and the 
fouth bridge, built (according to Anthony a Wood's account 
of Oxford, lately publifhed by fir John Peafhall) by Robert 
D'Oyley, the firft of that name, on the fite of a more ancient 
one, proved by records to have been Handing in the time of 
king Etheldred, and fuppofed as old as the times of the Britons, 

Tradition relates that this tower was the ftudy or obfer- 
vatory of Friar Bacon, an eminent mathematician, philofopher, 
and one of the inventors of gunpowder, who lived in the latter 
end of the 1 3th century, and whofe fuperior abilities (fuch was 
the ignorance and fuperftition of the times) brought on him 
the imputation of being a magician. Among other ridiculous 
ftories told of him, it is faid, that by his art he fo conftrudted 
this his ftudy, that it will fall whenever a more learned man 
than himfelf fhall pafs under it. 

The following hiftory of this building is given in the above- 
cited account: " before I go farther (fays he) I muft take 
notice of the tower, with a gate and common pafTage under- 
neath, called Friar Bacon's Study, which ftandeth on this 
bridge near the end next the city ; a name merely traditional, 
and not in any record to be found. It has been delivered as a 
fact from one generation to another, and from them well verfed 
in aftronomy, and the antiquities of Roger Bacon, a Francifcan 
friar of this place, who died 1292, known to be a great aftro- 
nomer, that he was ufed in the night to afcend this place, and 
to take the altitude and diftance of the flars. 

Xx Of 

1 70 


Of its foundation, it is moft reasonably fuppofed to have 
been built in king Stephen's time, or in the beginning of the 
troubleibme wars of the barons ; being then built as a Pharos, 

or high watch-tower for the defence of the city. In the 

28th of Hen. III. and king Edw. I. reigns, there are mentions 
of it, under the name of the new gate and tower on the fouth 
bridge ; not that it was then newly built, but it was the name 
impofed on it, and by that name called through all the reigns 

till queen Elizabeth. In the 7th year of that queen it was 

let to Dr. White for feveral years, conditionally, that he fhould 
fuffer the archdeacon's court of Berks to be kept there ; and 
alfo that the citizens ihould have free ingrefs and regrefs in 
times of need and danger for the defence of the city. But 33d. 
of queen Elizabeth it was let to the citizens by the name of 
Bachelor's Tower, fo called by Mr. Windfore ; and is fo written 
in difmiffions to this day; and the Three Hams belonging to, 
and near adjoining to it, are called the Tower Ham, Bachelor's 
Ham, and Eftwich Ham, being little clofes, each furrounded 
by the river." 

This tower was lately hired by a perfon from London, at 
40 1. per annum, to conftruct the water- works for fupplying 
the houfes and colleges; but the fcheme not meeting with fuc- 
cefs, he relinquished it, and advertifed the tower to be let. 
This view was taken anno 1 774. 


jDanbury church is an handfome (tone edifice, having a 
lofty fquare tower, crowned with eight pinnacles, and contain- 
ing fix well tuned bells. This building has fomething elegant 
and picturefque in its conftru£tion, appearing rather like a cathe- 
dral than a common parochial church : its flile befpeaks it of no 
very modern date; but neither the time of its erection, nor the 



name of its founder nor architect, have been preferved by hif- 
tory or tradition. 

The length of this church, according to fir John Peafhall, 
who meafured it very carefully, is thirty yards three inches, 
exclufive of the chapel, which is twenty-two yards three inches 
long ; its breadth twenty-nine yards feventeen inches. It has 
two aides extending to the chancel, and over the weft end an 
handfome organ, fet up anno 1769 by a voluntary fubfcription. 

Over the eaft end is a gallery, and another over the weft 
aifle. Over the firft is painted on the wall the arms of the 
town, viz. Az. the Sun, Or. motto, Deus eft nobis Sol et Scu- 
tum, i. e. God is our Sun and Shield ; and above this the king's 

Anno 1109, loth.Hen. I. the tithes of this church, as may 
be feen in Dugdale's Monafticon, were given with thofe of 
Cropredy, Tame, and Minfter, cum Bordariis, or with the 
Borderers, a lower clafs of villeins, to the monks of the monas- 
tery of Eyniham in this county, by Gilbert Ballet, fon of Ralph, 
juftice of England. Soon after this church, with its impro- 
priation, was made a prebend in Lincoln cathedral. Anno 
1534, at the diffolution of religious houfes, or reformation, it 
was given to the fee of Lincoln ; and after, by the fame con- 
cefTion of Henry Holbech, then biihop of Lincoln, transferred 
to the fee of Oxford, anno 1547; the biihop of Lincoln referr- 
ing to himfelf judicial and vifitatorial power over the church. 

Leland in his Itinerary thus writes of this church : " ther 
is but one paroch church at Banbury, dedicated to our Lady; 
it is a large thinge, efpecially in breadth. I faw but one not- 
able tomb in the church, and that is black marble, wherein 
William Cope, coferer to K. Hen. 7, is buried. In the church- 
yard be houfes for chauntery prieftes. The perfonage of Ban- 
bury is a prebende of Lincoln. Ther is a vicar endowed. 

In E£ton, Banbury is regiftered among the livings difcharged. 
The biihop of Oxford is Propr. and Patr. Olim Preb. of Ban- 
bury in Lincoln cathedral, Propr, and Patr. The clear yearly 



value 1 61. 15s. 6d. The yearly tenths 2I. 4s. o 4 x d. This view 
was drawn anno 1757. . 


_l HIS palace obtained its name from its fituation, which was 
in a certain diftrict in the north fuburbs, called Bellus Mons, 
or Beaumont : wherein, according to diverfe authors, the an- 
cient univerfity flood. 

"Herein it was," fays Anthony a Wood (in his account of 
Oxford, publifhed by fir John Peafhall) " that king Hen. I. 
for the great pleafure of the feat, the fweetnefs and delectable- 
nefs of the air, as efpecially for the fake of the univerfity, be- 
ing much given to learning and philofophy*, built a palace for 
him and his retinue. 

Ross tells us, that he was not only incited to do it for thefe 
purpofes, but alfo becaufe of his vicinity to Woodflock park, 
in which he took fo great delight. 

In this palace, fmilhed circ. 112$, Richard, fon of king 
Hen. II. received his firft breathf (afterwards king Rich. I.) for 
which were great rejoicings here. 

King Hen. II. had fo great refpedt for this place, that he 
granted feveral privileges to the burgeffes of Oxford. In his 
reign, viz. the 3d and 9th of it, this place was repaired, accord- 
ing to the fherifPs accounts; in the laft of which, from the 
many oaks cut down, it feemeth to have been much out of 
order, and almoft re-edified. In the 33d of Hen. III. it was 
repaired again J, and j 81- 4s. 3d. brought in for glazing it, re- 
pairing the chapels, the king's chamber, the queen's wardrobe, 
and the porter's houfe, which was at the gate looking towards 
Broker's Hey's. After it had continued the refidence fome time 

* De Reg. Angl. MSS. in Bib. Cotton, in H. I. 

f Rot. Pip. 9. R. I. in Scac. 

X Rot. M. II. in Rem. Scac. ex pte. D. Thefuar. 



of king Hen. I. king Stephen (who lay here at his fiege of 
Maud the emprefs in the caftle) king Hen. II. Rich. I. king 
John, Hen. III. Edw. I. and II. it was at laft, in relation to a 
folemn vow by him taken, given to the Carmelite Friars, who 
immediately upon this gift tranflated themfelves from their old 
habitation on the weft fide of Stockwell-ftreet to this of the 
king's : wherein afterwards, though alienated from its proper 
ufes, yet raoft of the fucceeding kings, at their arrival in 
thefe parts, took up their refidence and lodge. 

This manfion they obtained by means of Robert Baftion, a 
Carmelite ; and in his time a celebrated poet, who in a poem 
on king Edward engaging the Scots, rendered himfelf accept- 
able to the father, as he afterwards did to his fon Edw. II. who 
being in danger by flight, after the battle fought between him 
and Robert Bruce, king of Scotland, was promifed fafety upon 
condition that ,he would build a houfe for the Carmelites on 
his return to England ; but through want of money being hin- 
dered from building them one, he agreed, efpecially by the 
perfuafion of his friends, to give and confirm to them this his 
palace at a parliament met at York ; and further ordained the 
Tefidence of 24 friars therein, who fhould attend the ftudy of 
divinity, and each of them receive five marks per ann. out of 
the royal purfe or treafury ; which penfion was, in the 4th of 
£dw. Ill's reign, difputed, and, as is thought taken away,, 
King Edw. II. in the fame year in which he gave them his pa- 
lace, granted, for their enlarging this feat, two other tene- 
ments, fituate almoft oppofite to Gloucefter hall, Stockwell- 

And thus thefe Carmelites, who, in their primitive ftate, 
lived the molt reclufe from human converfation, were after- 
wards, by receiving confeffions (forbidden them by the arch- 
bifhop of Canterbury) grown popular ; they advanced themfelves 
to great riches; and having the moft ample feat in Oxford, 
folaced themfelves with all manner of pleafure, 

Y y And 


And to confirm a continuance of this palace, &c. to them 
and their fucceffors, they procured a bull from pope John XXL 
in the 2d year of his papacy, by which the king's grant was 
confirmed to them; indulging them with the power of leaving 
their ancient feat, and either felling or commuting the fame for 
other lands and houfes, notwithftanding pope Boniface the 
eighth's bull to the contrary. 

After this they purchafed leave of the Ofney convent, 3d 
Non. Apr. 131 8 (this new feat being within the manor and 
pariih of Magdalene) either in the fame houfe or the king's 
palace to celebrate divine fervice, and to buiy their dead, &c 
according to the tenor of their privileges, without diminution 
or impediment; which liberty they obtained from Robert Gar- 
lington, the vicar of the pariih ; and from J. Dalderby, biihop 
of Lincoln, by letters dated at Bngden the nrft funday in Lent, 
131 8, confirmed with all the liberty, and all they had obtained 
of the pope, the king, and Ofney. After which they procured 
of their diocefan, that their new pofTeflions fhould be confe- 
crated to facred ufes. 

They had erected here three fchools (one whereof in their 
iirft manfion built for them by H. de Hama) in this their new 
one, two ; one for divinity, the other for philofophy, from 
whence iffued many learned authors, as J. Chelmefton, W. Lid- 
lington, Robert and J. Walfingham, J. Breconthorp, Robert 
Baftion, &c. 

It was cuftomary for the religious to have fchools within 
themfelves, that bore the name of their refpective order. Thus, 

the Auguftine fchools of whom hereafter The Carmelite 

fchools for divinity and philofophy in the pariih of St. Mary 
Magdalene, &c. Wood Ath. $jj, Ken. par Ant. 

Their hall in this royal feat was fit for kings, many of 
whom had kept the paffover and nativity here. The church 
was fpacious and very handfome ; in the fteeple a good ring 
of bells, and in the walls and floor many rich monuments 
for perfons famous for their birth and learning ; as, Thomas 



Peverell, biihop ofWorcefter, who died 141 7; J. Twyning, 
abbot of Winchcombe, he died 1488, &c. 

At the diffolution of all monafteries this fuffered with the 
reft, and has now fcarce a ftone left to tell where it once was. 
This happened 31ft Hen. VIII. when the houfe was let with 
all its appurtenances for 3I. 4s. till the fame king, anno 33d 
Regn. made them over to Edmund Powell of Sandford, gent, 
and Elizabeth his wife, for fome farms afligned to him at 
Windfor, and 388 1. 5 s. in cafh. This fale, exclufive of the 
houfe, confifted of a tenement and a garden near the gate of 
the priory ; of another tenement and little orchard lying within 
the precin&s of the priory — the way leading to the priory from 
St. Mary Magdalen's church, called the Prior's or Friars Entry, 
now in being — The liable and the wood-yard, containing an 
acre in compafs — Two enclofures ; one of which is called Glo- 
cefter college, containing three acres and a half, the other 
adjoining to it of two acres — The enclofure of the church ly- 
ing on the fouth fide, about two acres — The faid Powell, or 
his fon, demolifhed feveral of thefe buildings, and fold the 
ftones, &c. 

The refectory or hall, which only remained, was, as fame 
fays, converted into a common receptacle for beggars and poor, 
who had no dwellings in this parifh till the year 1596, when 
it was pulled down, and the ftones carried away to enlarge the 
library of St. John's college, and furnilhed the ftones for the 
neat quadrangular there built by archbilhop Laud." 

From the above account one would be led to fuppofe, that 
no traces of this once famous palace were remaining ; never- 
thelefs, the fmall fragment here reprefented was in being anno 
1774, when this drawing was taken, and had the teftimony 
of tradition, for having been part of that edifice, and even 
the room wherein king Richard was born. It was a fmall 
apartment, meafuring fix yards by eight, uncovered; the fide 
walls about thirteen feet high, and in it fomething like the 




ruins of a fire place. It then exhibited an admirable fpecimen of 
the mutability of all worldly matters ; for from a royal pa- 
lace it was converted to a hog-ftye. 


JL HI S houfe was founded the latter end of the reign of Hen. L 
at the inftance of Editha, Ediva, or Ida, a religious matron 
of Winchefter, widow of a knight, named fir William Lame- 
lyne. The legend fays, lrie was directed by a vifion to repair 
to a place near Bifney, and there to erect: a nunnery, where a 
light from heaven fhould appear. 

John of St. John, lord of Wolvercote and Stanton, gave the 
ground for the fite of the building. She was likewife aflifted 
by the contributions of diverfe well-difpofed perfons, infomuch 
that llie foon completed a convent for benedictine nuns, which 
was confecrated, anno domini 1138, to the honour of the 
Virgin Mary and St. John the baptift ; the laff. perhaps in com- 
pliment to St. John the benefactor. 

The ceremony was performed with great folemnity, by Alex- 
ander, bifhop of Lincoln, in the prefence of king Stephen and 
his queen, prince Euftace, the archbifhop of Canterbury, and 
fix other bifhops, with feveral of the nobility, who moft of 
them gave towards its endowment. Albericus, bifhop of Hoflia, 
the pope's legate, then in England, releafed to every one of 
thefe benefactors, one year of enjoined penance ; and granted 
moreover a remiffion of 40 days in every year, to all thofe who 
fhould in devotion vifit the church of this houfe, on the day 
of St. jPrifca the virgin, or the nativity of St. John the bap- 
tift. The lands given were confirmed by king Stephen, and 
by king Rich. I. in the fcrft year of his reign. Editha was ah- 
befs here over 24 ladies; her eldeft daughter Emma being firft, 
and her daughter Avis fecond priorefs. This nunnery was the 
refidence, and afterwards the burial-place of Rofamond Clifford, 



concubine to king Hen. II. on whofe account (as it is fuppofed) 
that king was a great benefactor, as was afterwards his fon, king 
John, who bellowed a fund for maffes and prayers to be of- 
fered up for the foul of his father and that of the lady Rofa- 

The hiftory of this unfortunate beauty is generally thus re- 
lated. Rofamond, daughter of Walter, lord Clifford, was a 
young lady of exquifite beauty, fine accomplifhments, bleffed 
with a molt engaging wit and fweetnefs of temper; fhe had, 
as was the cuftom of thofe days, been educated in the nunnery 
of Godftow : Henry faw her, became enamoured, declared his 
paffion, and triumphed over her honour. This intrigue did not 
long remain a fecret to queen Elinor ; Henry, fearful of the 
effects of her jealoufy, caufed a wonderful maze or labyrinth, 
formed with arches and winding walls of ftone, to be built at 
Woodftock, into whofe recedes it was impoflible for any ftran- 
ger to penetrate. Hither he transported his iovely miftrefs, 
where fhe remained feveral years, and was frequently vifited by 
the king, whofe ardour was encreafed rather than cloyed by en- 
joyment. The fruits of this intercourfe were, William Long- 
iword, earl of Salifbury, and Geoffry, bifhop of Lincoln. 

At length, Henry being called away by a rebellion in France, 
he entrusted the keeping of this bower to a faithful and valiant 
knight, and, after taking a tender leave of his Rofamond, de- 

The king was no fooner gone, than Elinor, whofe rage and 
jealoufy grew every day more implacable, and kept her con- 
tinually on the watch, at length found the entrance by the 
following accident. Rofamond fitting without her bower to 
take the air, being bufied at work, faw the queen ; when haf- 
tily retreating, (lie dropped a ball of filk, which entangling in 
either her feet or garments, gradually unwound as fhe fled, 
thereby guiding the queen to her fecret apartment. At her 
firft entrance, it is faid, Elinor was ftruck with amazement at 
the extraordinary beauty of her intended victim; but recalling 

Z z her 


her refentment, flie obliged her to drink a cup of poifon, pre* 
pared for that purpofe, which put an end to her life in the 
year 1177. 

The circumftance of Elinor obtaining the clew is varioufly 
related. Some fay, it was by means of a thread of filk, which 
hung to the king's foot, on his leaving Rofamond's apartment, 
which he carried unperceived to the entrance of the bower ; 
but according to the old hiftorical ballad, me took it by force 
from the knight, with whom the king had entruftcd it. 

This is the popular ftory, but it is by no means fup» 
ported by hiftory; feveral writers fay no more, than that 
<l the queen fo vented her fpleen upon Rofamond, as the 
lady lived not long after." And John Brompton, Henry 
Knighton, and Ranulph Higden, all afTert lhe died a natural 
death, and that it happened foon after me was enclofed in this 
bower. This ftory of the poifon is thought to have taken its 
rife from the figure of a cup, engraved as an ornament on her 
tomb. Her parents, who furvived her, caufed her to be buried 
in the church of Godftow, oppofite the high altar ; and Henry 
lavilhed great fums in adorning and lighting her tomb. Here 
fhe remained till the year 1 1 9 1 ; when, according to Roger 
Hovedon, Hugh bilhop of Lincoln, vifiting the nunnery of 
Godftow, went into the church to pray; where obferving a 
tomb covered with filk, and lighted by a profufion of wax 
tapers, he enquired to whom it belonged ; and being anfwered, 
to Rofamond, miftrefs to king Henry, who, for her fake, had 
been a great benefactor to the church, the bilhop, in a fit of 
zeal, exclaimed : take this harlot from hence ! and bury her 
without the church, left through her the chriftian religion 
fhould be fcandalized; and that other women, warned by her 
example, may refrain from unlawful and adulterous love. It 
was accordingly done, and her body was depofited, as tradition 
fays, in the chapter-houfe. But it was the deftiny of this un- 
fortunate lady to find no reft for her corpfe; for after the refor- 
mation her coffin was difcovered and opened, of which Leland 



gives the following account: " Rofamundes Turae, at Godflow 
Nunnery, was taken up a late ; it is a flone with this infcrip- 
tion, Tumba Rofamundae, her bones were clofed in lede, and 
wythin that, bones were clofed yn letter; when it was opened 
there was a fwete fmell came out of it." Notwith {landing the 
opinion of the biihop of Lincoln, Rofamond was confidered af- 
ter her death as little lefs than a faint, as appears by the fol- 
lowing infcription on a crofs, which Leland fays flood near 
Godflow : 

Qui meat hac oret, fignum falutis adoret 
Utque Sibi detur veniam. Rofamunda Precetur. 

And alfo by the following flory: Rofamond, during her re- 
fidence at her bower, made feveral vifits to Godflow; where 
being frequently reproved for the life fhe led, and threatened 
with the confequences in a future ftate, fhe always anfwered, 
fhe knew fhe fhould be faved ; and as a token to them, fhewed 
a tree which fhe faid would be turned into flone, when fhe was 
with the faints in heaven. Soon after her death this wonder- 
ful metamorphofis happened, and the flone was fhewn to flran- 
gers, at Godflow, till the time of the diffolution. 

The revenues of this houfe, 26 Hen. VIII. amounted to 274 1* 
5s. iod. ob. per an. Dugdale: 319I. 18s. 8d. Speed. The fite, 
with the greatefl part of the adjoining eflates, were granted 
by that king to his phyfician, dodlor George Owen. Catharine 
Bulkley, the lafl abbefs, long refufed to refign it; fhe and 16 
of her nuns had penfions affigned them. In 1703, a walnut- 
tree being rooted up by a violent florm, a fragment of an an- 
cient tombflone was difcovered, having this infcription in 
antique characters: Godeflowe une Chaunterie J. . . A print 
of this, together with fome conjectures thereupon, is given in 
the lafl edition of Leland's Itinerary. 

This nunnery flood about two miles north of Oxford, near 
the river Ifis. In 1761, there remained only part of the tower 



of the church, and a fmall chapel, both feen in this view, 
.and fome of the exterior walls ; thefe however fufficed to fhew 
it was a place of confiderable extent. 

In this chapel is ihewn a large ftone coffin, pretended to 
be that from which Rofamond's bones were taken; it feems 
to be contrived for two bodies, having been divided in the 
middle by a ridge of ftone, running from head to foot. On the 
infide of the fouth wall was newly wrote the following epitaph, 
being a copy of that faid to have been placed on her tomb, and 
which contains a quibble on her name : 

Hie jacet in Tumba, Rofa mundi, non Rofamunda 
Non redolet, fed olet, quae redolere folet. 

The walls of this building appear to have been formerly 
painted. Here is a pond, which is faid to have been once a 
paved bath. The common people have a ftory of a fubterraneous 
paflage from hence to Woodftock : a labouring man told Mr. 
Hanwell, late deputy-treafurer of Chrift-church, that he had 
entered fo far into one, as to pafs through three gates, but was 
deterred from going farther, by an eft falling on his moulder. 
If there is any truth in this relation, it might poflibly be fome 
drain. This ftory of underground paflages is told of mofl reli- 
gious houfes, This drawing was made in the year 1761, 


J. HE church of this place (fays Tanner) being given to the 
abbey of St. Mary de Ibreio, or Yvri, by Maud the wife of 
William Lovel before 8 Joannis, it became an alien priory of 
Benedictine monks, cell to that foreign monaftery, which, af- 
ter the fuppreflion of thofe houfes, was granted to Eaton Col- 
lege, the fir ft of Edward the fourth. 


P ,lll,,fl )|M 


BroWne Willis, in his hiftory of abbeys, has the following 
lift of the priors of this houfe, taken from the regifters of 
Lincoln : 

Simon de Paris refigned his priorfhip to 

Gucius, a monk of St. Mary de Ibreio, who was preferred to 
this office by the abbot and convent of St. Mary de Ibreio afore- 
faid, an. 1259. He refigned about the year 1263, and was fuc- 
ceeded by 

James, a monk of the abovefaid convent, on the 2d of the 
id. of Feb. 1263; who refigning after two years government, 

Gacius, a monk of the abovefaid houfe, was elected prior 
an. 1265. He alfo refigned, and was fucceeded in his office by 

John, another monk of that convent, on the 7th of the id„ 
of November 1269; on whofe death 

Stephen was admitted the 2d of the non. of April 1291. He 
refigned an. 1293, and was fucceeded by 

Ralph de Montfort, a monk of the aforefaid convent of St. 
Mary de Ibreio, admitted prior on the non. of Oct. 1293; wnc> 
likewife refigning about the year 1299, 

John de Monte Calveto, a monk of the abovefaid convent, 
was fubftituted in his ftead the 4th of the id. of Nov. 1299. 
He died about the year 1 304, and was fucceeded by 

Robert de Hodenes, on the cal. of March 1307; on whofe 
refignation one GefFery de Ruffeto, monk alfo of St. Mary de 
Ibreio, was prefented to this dignity the 2d of the cal. of Sept. 
1 307. He refigned an. 1309, and was fucceeded by 

Berland de Mondreville, on the 7th of the id. of Dec. 1309. 
After whom I find this office was vacant about fix months, 

William de Rouge, a monk of the aforementioned convent, 
was preferred hither on the 6th of the id. of May 1341. He 
is the laft my authorities furniih me with ; and fo I muff with 
him conclude my feries, 

A a a This 


This priory is not mentioned in Dugdale's Monafticon, 
Leland, in his Itinerary, fpeaks of it rather as a manfion than 
a religious houfe. 

" Then, about a myle to Mynfter village, havynge the' 
name of Lovell, fometyme lorde of it. Ther is an ancient place 
of the Lovels harde-by the cfmrche. Matter Vinton of Wade- 
ly, by Farington, hathe it of the kynge in fcrme." 

Minster Lovel lies about three miles weft of Whitney, and 
about half a mile north of the high-road leading from Burford 
to Oxford. 

It is fituated in a valley clofe to the northernmoft bank of 
the rivulet Windruih, and about an hundred yards fouth of 
the parifh-church. It appears by its ruins to have been a large 
and elegant building. The conventual church and part of a 
gateway are the chief remains. Some other buildings, for- 
merly offices to the monaftery, are converted to out-houfes for 
the adjoining farm. 

It belongs to Coke, Efq, a defcendant from the late 

earl of Leicefter, who from it took the title of lord Lovel; he, 
perhaps, held this eftate by a leafe under Eaton College. This 
view, which reprefents the north-eaft afpect, was drawn anna 

l 17S- 


JL HIS caftle ftands on the weft fide of the town, a fmall dif~ 
tance eaft of the river Ifis. It was built anno 1071, by Robert 
de Oilies, or D'Oilley, a Norman, who came over with William 
the Conqueror, and who, for his good fervices, was rewarded 
by that prince with confiderable grants of land in this county. 
Here was a parifh church dedicated to St. George ; the regifter 
of Ofney calls it a church of canons fecular, and fays it was 
jointly founded by Robert D'Oilley and Robert de Iveri, anno 
1074. This church was, in 1149, annexed to a houfe of 
regular canons, founded at Ofney, by Robert D'Oilley, nephew 



of the before-named Robert. The buildings were afterwards 
occupied by fcholars. It is faid, an antient manufcript men- 
tioned a monaftery here before the year 1122, dedicated to St. 

In the reign of king Stephen, anno 1141, this caftle was 
delivered up to the emprefs Matilda, who kept the eafter feftival 
in the city with great folemnity. The next year Stephen 
having taken the town by a fortunate act of temerity, laid fiege 
to the caftle, wherein the emprefs refided, which, with the 
tower that covered one fide of it, were, according to a cotem- 
porary hiftorian, accounted impregnable. In order, therefore, 
to make himfelf mafter of it either by force or famine, the king, 
entrenching himfelf, blocked up every avenue by which the 
befieged might receive either fuccour or provifions, and at the 
fame time battered it furiou fly with all the machines then in 
ufe. The barons, who did not dare attack him in his works,, 
in vain attempted to provoke him to a battle ; fo that although 
they had pledged their faith to the earl of Gloucefter, to guard 
his fifter, the emprefs, from all danger during his abfence in 
France, whither he was gone to raife fupplies, they were con- 
{trained to leave her to her fate. Matilda, after having, by her 
exhortations and example animated the garrifon to make a much 
more vigorous defence than could have been expected, at 
length, reduced to the utmoft extremity for want of every 
neceffary, and defpairing of relief, went privately out of the 
caftle by night, without the knowledge of the garrifon, accom- 
panied only by three trufty attendants ; and being conducted by 
a foldier of Stephen's army, whom fhe had gained by prefents, 
croffed over the Thames, which was then frozen fo hard as to 
bear, and palling through the midft of her enemy's army, 
which guarded the oppofite fide of the river, after great hazard 
and fatigue reached Abingdon, having walked fix miles through 
a deep fnow. It is faid, Ihe and her attendants were cloathed 
in white, to render themfelves the lefs diftinguifhable in the 
fnow. The garrifon, as foon as they were acquainted with her 



flight, furrendcrcd upon terms. During this fiege was built 
the chapel of St. Thomas, becaufe the inhabitants could not 
then have the ufe of the pariih-church of St. George, thefe 
particulars of the emprefs's efcape are not adopted by all our 
hiftorians, though they generally agree it was effected by means 
of the treachery of fome of Stephen's party. 

Anno 11.91 this caftle was delivered into the cuftody of 
Richard Revel, by king Rich. I. and in the 16th of Hen. III. 
(according to Madox's hiftory of the Exchequer) that king 
granted, for himfelf and his heirs, unto Godfrey de Crau- 
cumbe, the cuftody of the county and caftle of Oxford, with 
the meadow and mill belonging to the caftle, and with all 
other things pertaining to the lhrievalty, for his life, he paying 
the fame ferm as had been ufually paid in the time of king 
John, with the addition of 20 marks every year, as proficuum, 
or the value of accidental emoluments. From the fame au- 
thority it appears, that in the 15th of Edw. II. by writ of privy 
feal directed to the lheriff, the caftle of Oxford was ordered to 
be victualled and provided with munition. 

In a map, or rather bird's flight view of this town and uni- 
verfity, drawn by Ralph Agas, A. D. 1578, and publifhed anno 
1728, the caftle is reprefented as an irregular octogon, fituated 
on an eminence, and furrounded by an embattled wall, having 
on its angles five fquare towers ; and on its weft fide one of a 
multangular figure, called the caftle prifon, fouth of which is 
a building with a tower, feemingly a church. The entrance is 
by a wooden bridge, over a wet ditch which almoft encompaftes 
the caftle; and through a tower on the fouth eaft angle. On 
a mount near the north wall ftands the gallows. There are no 
appearances of any dwelling-houfes or barracks ; probably they 
were deftroyed before this plan was drawn. 

Little of the caftle was remaining in the year 1 75 1 , when 
this view was drawn, except the tower here fhewn, which then 
ferved for the county prifon. Near it is a fmall chapel, built 
by contribution for the ufe of the prifoners. On the mount feen 



to the right is a large vaulted magazine, now ufed for a flore 
cellar. The wall on the left is part of the antient flructure, 
and is ten feet thick. Beneath the mount, in the cattle yard, 
are the remains of the antient feffions-houfe, wherein was held, 
anno 1577, what is ftiled the black aflize, on account of an in- 
fectious diftemper, brought by the prifoners, whereby the lieu- 
tenant of the county, two knights, eighty efquires and juftices 
of the peace, befides almoft all the gentlemen of the grand 
jury, died. Above 100 fcholars, befides townfmen, were at- 
tacked by the fame diforder, which was attended with a kind 
of frenzy, fo that thofe affected with it ran wildly about the 
ftreets, affaulting every one they met, their governors not ex- 
cepted. Thefe remains are not vifible from the ftation from 
whence this view was taken. 


A HIS chapel is undoubtedly very ancient, as are moft of the 
buildings of this venerable mention, which, with the manor, 
have been in the family of the Harcourts upwards of 576 years. 
The exact time of their erection is not known. 

The infide of this edifice is ftill entire. It was the private 
oratory or place of worihip of the family ; the ceiling, which 
was painted, carved, and gilded, is in tolerable prefervation. 
It joined to the great hall, with which it communicated by a 
door oppofite the altar, above which was a window enriched 
with ftained glafs, whereon were depicted the different quar- 
terings borne by the Harcourts, and alfo portraits of perfons 
habited like warriors, having on their fhields and mantles the 
arms and crefts of that ancient family. This ftained glafs 
was removed feveral years ago to prevent its being deftroyed. 

The chapel is now kept locked up, it not being made ufe 
of. In the tower are three rooms, and over a part of the 
chapel is a fourth, all of them acceflible by means of the wind- 
ing-ftairs of ftone that led to the leads. One of thefe rooms 

B b b Pope 


Pope made ufe of as a fludy, having pafled part of two fum- 
mers at Stanton Harcourt for the fake of retirement, Avhile 
employed in his tranflation of Homer; the fifth volume of 
which he finifhed here, as appears by the following memoran- 
dum written with a diamond on a piece of red flamed glafs, now 
in the poflemon of lord Nuneham: 

In the year 1718 

Finifhed here the 
Fifth Volume of Homer. 

At this place he was frequently vifited by his friend Gay,. 
who ufed to fpend fome time at Cockthorp, a feat belonging to 
lord vifcount Harcourt, about two miles off. 

Here likewife Pope wrote the following epitaph on the two 
lovers ftruck dead by lightning ; an event which happened in 
the common field near this houfe during his rehdence here. 

Near this place lie the bodies of 
John Hewet, and Mary Drew, 

an induftrious young man 

and virtuous maiden of this parifh ; 

Who being at harveft work 

(with feveral others) 

were in one inftant killed by lightning* 

the lafl day of July 171 8. 

Think not, by rig'rous judgment feiz'd, 

A pair fo faithful could expire ; 

Victims fo pure heav'n faw well pleas'd,. 

/ And fnatch'd them in celeftial fire. 

Live well, and fear no fudden fate ; 

When God calls virtue to the grave, 

Alike 'tis juftice, foon or late, 

Mercy alike to kill or fave. 

Virtue unmov'd can hear the call, 

And face the fiafti that melts the balL 



It is infcribed on a mural tablet in the parifh-church ; where 
is alfo this celebrated epitaph on the honourable Simon Har- 


Only fon of the Lord Chancellor Harcoi/rt ; at the church of 
Stanton-Harcourt in Oxfordfhire, 1720. 

To this fad fhrine, who e'er thou art I draw near, 
Here lies the friend moft lov'd, the Son moft dear: 
Who ne'er knew joy, but friendfhip might divide y 
Or gave his father grief, but when he dy'd. 

How vain is Reafon, Eloquence how weak ! 
If Pope muft tell what Harcourt cannot fpeak„ 
Oh let thy once-lov'd friend infcribe thy ftone y 
And, with a father's forrows, mix his own I 

This view was drawn anno 1760, 


JL HIS was one of thofe antient buildings erected without 
chimneys, which were not in former times fo generally ufed 
as at prefent ; many inftances of kitchens and great halls with- 
out chimneys frequently occurring in the accounts of ancient 
edifices. Leland, in particular, mentions an extraordinary 
contrivance ufed for the fmoke in the great hall of Bolton 
caftle in Yorkfhire. The paffage is quoted in the defcription of 
that caftle. 

Dr. Plot, in his hiftory of Oxfordfhire, takes notice of this- 
building : his words are, " and yet, amongft all thefe eminent 
private ftru&ures, could I find nothing extraordinary in the 

whole 5. 



whole; but, in the parts, the kitchen of the right worfhip- 
ful fir Simon Harcourt, knight, of Stanton Harcourt, is fo 
ftrangely unufual, that, by way of riddle, one may truly call 
it either a kitchen within a chimney, or a kitchen without one ; 
for below it is nothing but a large fquare, an octangular above^ 
ending like a tower, the fires being made againft the walls, and 
the fmoak climbing up them, without any tunnels, or difturb- 
ance to the cooks ; which, being (topped by a large conical roof 
at the top, goes out at loop-holes on every fide, according as the 
wind fits ; the loop-holes at the fide next the wind being fhut 
with falling doors, and the adverfe fide opened." 

This kitchen is a large fquare and lofty building, remark- 
able for its form and the above-mentioned fingularity of being 
without a chimney. A winding-ltaircafe of ftone in the turret 
leads to a paffage round the battlements ; and beneath the eaves 
of the roof are fhutters that lift up to give vent to the fmoak ; 
this appears to be of an elder date than the reft of the buildings. 
Dr. Littleton, the late bilhop of Carlifle, was of opinion, that 
it was repaired, and the prefent windows put in, about the 
reign of Hen. IV. their ftile appearing to be fuch as was in ufe 
at that period : the remains of an arch in the wall above them 
plainly ihew, that fome alteration has formerly been made in 
the building. This view was taken anno 1760. 

PART Jtafle^ford 


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Note -that the fide is two miles 










S an inland county, the fmalleft in Great-Britain, belonging, before the arrival 
of the Romans, to the principality of the Coritani, and after their eftablifbrnent it 
was included in their province of Flavia Caefarienfis. During the Saxon Heptarchy 
it belonged to the kingdom of M'ircia, which began in 582, and ended in 827, 
having had 18 kings. When Alfred divided England into counties, this county 
was included in NorthamptonfiHire : it is now in the Midland Circuit, in the 
diocefe of Peterborough and p/ovince of Canterbury. It is bounded on the north 
by Lincolnshire and Leiceft^rfhire ; eaft by Lincolnshire ; weft by Leicefterfhire ; 
and fouth by Northampton/hire It is 15 miles long and 10 broad, and about 45 in 
circumference; containing 110,000 fquare acres, or 136 fquare miles, having 
19,560 inhabitants and 3263 houfes. It is divided into 5 hundreds, 48 parifhes, 
with 10 vicarages, and has 111 villages and 2 market-towns, viz. Oakham 'the 
county town, and Uppingham. It fends 2 Members to Parliament, pays 1 part of 
the Land-tax, and provides 120 men to the national Militia. Its principal rivers 
are the Guafli ajrcd Welland, with feveral fmaller rivulets. The moll: noted places 
are the Quarries, Old Foreft of Liefield, Vale of Catmos, Witchley Heath, ^Ve- 
nule Crofs % and feveral fine parks more than any county in England in prop rion 
^ 10 



to its bignefs. It produces limeftone, corn, cattle, fheep, wool, and wood ; and, 
though the fmalleft county, is the moft fruitful, of any in England. The air is 
remarkably good, and the foil rich, efpecially the fertile vale of Catmos. This 
county was a part of Northamptonfhire, and continued fo till about the time of 
the Conquefb 

The only.Roman ftation in this county is faid by fome to have been at Market- 
Overton, a village three miles from Okeham, and fuppofed to have been the Mar- 
gidunum of Antoninus, where a great number of Roman, coins have at different 
times been dug up. Others/contend that Brig Gaftertdh is another ftation,- and 
fuppofe it to have been the Caufennscof the Romans. Dr. Stukeley fays, Brig 
Carterton happened moft conveniently for a ftation, being 10 miles from Duro- 
brivis, but the Itinerary mentions not' its name. However that be, it was fenced 
about with a deep moat on two fides, the river fupplying the other two. And here 
is a pafture called Caftle Clofe, at the corner of which the foundation of a wall 
has been dug up. 

The only Roman military road that pafTes through this county is that from 
Chefterton in Huntingdonfhire, through Northamptonfhire to Stamford, and enters 
this county the midway between that town and Brig Cafterton, from whence it goes 
northward by Five-mile Grofs, leaving Market-Overton on the left, to Grantham 
in Lincolnfhire. 

- The only ANTIQUITIES in this COUNTY worthy NOTICE arc 

Okeham Caftle, and 

Twickencote Church Co the left of Brig Cafterton. 







JL HIS church exhibits evident marks of great antiquity. Mr. 
Gough, in his Britifh Topography, fays that Dr. Stukeley fuppofed 
it to be the oldeft church now remaining in England, and that it 
was built by Peada, fon of Penda, king of Mercia, about the 
year 746. It is a re£tory, valued in the king's books at fix pounds 
five (hillings and eightpence. The advowfon was anciently in 
the abbot and convent of Ofvefton, in Leicefterfhire, who, in 
the 28th of Edward I. prefented to it ; and Sir Britius Daneys, 
then lord of the manor, pretending a right to it, prefented Wil- 
liam his fon. He however afterwards revoked his prefentation. 

The following account of this place is given by Wright, in his 
Hiftoryand Antiquities of Rutlandshire : 

" Tikencote lies in the eaft hundred; at the Conqueror's 
furvey, Grimbaldus held of the Countefs Judith, three hides, bating 
one bovate, in Tichecote,; the arable land was (ix carucates ; in 
demefne one, eight fockmen, twelve villains, and one cottager ; 
all poiTeffing five carucates. Here was alfo one mill of 24s. and 
twelve acres of meadow, formerly valued at 30s. and then at 50s. 

" In the reign of Edward II. Britius Daneys was lord of this 
manour ; which Britius Daneys was one of thofe eminent perfons 
in this country, who in the 29th Edward I. received the king's 
writ of fummons to attend him at Berwick upon Tweed, well 
fitted with hcrfe and armes, from thence to march againft the 

" In the 18th Edward III. Roger Daneys did releafe to Row- 
land Daneys his brother, and to his heirs, all his right in the 
mannour of Tikencote, and in all fuch lands and tenements which 
did at any time belong to Britius Daneys in Empingham. 

" In the 10th Henry IV. it was found that John Daneys, fon 
and heir of John Daneys, held of the king the mannour of Ti- 

Vol.VIII. *P kencote* 


kencote, the county of Rotel, by the fervice of one knight's 
fee, and two carucates of land, with the appurtenance's in Horum 
(i. e. Horn) in the faid county, by the fixth part of a knight's fee. 
" In the 5th Edward VI. John Campynet and- his wife obtain- 
ed licence to alienate the mannour of Tikencote, in the county of 
Rutland, to John Bevercots and John Foxton, and their heirs, to 
the ufe of the faid John Campynet, &c. which mannour was held 
of the king in capite by knight's fervice. But of later time a 
younger branch of the Winghelds of Upton in Com. Northamp-* 
ton, became lords of this mannour."-"— —This view was drawn. 
A. D. 178,5.